The Association of Metabolic Syndrome and Psoriasis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Study

Author(s): Saumya Choudhary, Dibyabhaba Pradhan, Anamika Pandey, Mohd. Kamran Khan, Rohit Lall, V. Ramesh, Poonam Puri, Arun K. Jain*, George Thomas*

Journal Name: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders - Drug Targets
Formerly Current Drug Targets - Immune, Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders

Volume 20 , Issue 5 , 2020


Become EABM
Become Reviewer
Call for Editor

Graphical Abstract:


Abstract:

Background: Metabolic syndrome worsens complications in psoriasis patients by predisposing them to cardiovascular diseases. Psoriasis has been widely associated with metabolic syndrome; however, it has still not been proven owing to a limited number of studies and some of those reporting conflicting results.

Objective: Psoriasis has reportedly been associated with metabolic syndrome; however, it has yet not been established beyond doubt owing to conflicting literature. The present meta-analysis of observational studies aims to evaluate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in psoriasis patients and establish an inferring point that psoriasis patients are certainly susceptible to metabolic syndrome. The study will benefit clinicians to assess and monitor psoriasis patients for several associated comorbid conditions and in its treatment.

Methods: A systematic web search for ‘Psoriasis’, ‘Metabolic Syndrome’, ‘Hypertension’, ‘Plasma Glucose’, ‘Dyslipidaemia’, ‘Waist Circumference’ was performed, collecting all original observational studies on humans up to April 30, 2018. Depending on the inclusion and exclusion criteria, articles were screened for eligibility. Due to the presence of significant heterogeneity, the Odds Ratio (OR) was calculated using a random-effect model with Der-Simonian and Laird method. The statistical heterogeneity was determined using I2 statistics. Comprehensive Meta-Analysis Software, Version 3 was used to perform all the analysis.

Results: Sixty-three studies encompassing 15,939 psoriasis patients and 103,984 controls were included in this meta-analysis. Among them, 30.29 % of psoriasis patients were reported with metabolic syndrome in comparison to 21.70 % of subjects in the control group. The present study clearly indicates an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome among psoriasis patients (OR: 2.077 [95% CI, 1.84 - 2.34]).

Conclusion: The findings support the fact that psoriasis patients have a higher incidence of metabolic syndrome. Our study also recommends that psoriasis patients should be regularly monitored for metabolic syndrome complications and its associated risk factors such as hypertension, raised triglyceride, lowered HDL Cholesterol, increased fasting plasma glucose, and waist circumference.

Keywords: Psoriasis, metabolic syndrome, meta-analysis, PRISMA, odds ratio (OR), comprehensive meta-analysis software.

[1]
Gisondi, P.; Tessari, G.; Conti, A.; Piaserico, S.; Schianchi, S.; Peserico, A.; Giannetti, A.; Girolomoni, G. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with psoriasis: a hospital-based case-control study. Br. J. Dermatol., 2007, 157(1), 68-73.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2133.2007.07986.x] [PMID: 17553036]
[2]
Armstrong, A.W.; Harskamp, C.T.; Armstrong, E.J. Psoriasis and metabolic syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol., 2013, 68(4), 654-662.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaad.2012.08.015] [PMID: 23360868]
[3]
Dogra, S.; Mahajan, R. Psoriasis: Epidemiology, clinical features, co-morbidities, and clinical scoring. Indian Dermatol. Online J., 2016, 7(6), 471-480.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/2229-5178.193906] [PMID: 27990381]
[4]
Vekic, D.A.; Cains, G.; Woods, J. Psoriasis: don’t miss the comorbidities. Med. Today , 2015, 16, 6.
[5]
Lowes, M.A.; Suárez-Fariñas, M.; Krueger, J.G. Immunology of psoriasis. Annu. Rev. Immunol., 2014, 32, 227-255.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-immunol-032713-120225] [PMID: 24655295]
[6]
Barker, J. Psoriasis heritability: 125 years and counting. Br. J. Dermatol., 2014, 171(1), 3-5.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjd.13105] [PMID: 25066284]
[7]
Golden, J.B.; McCormick, T.S.; Ward, N.L. IL-17 in psoriasis: implications for therapy and cardiovascular co-morbidities. Cytokine, 2013, 62(2), 195-201.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cyto.2013.03.013] [PMID: 23562549]
[8]
Reynoso-von Drateln, C.; Martínez-Abundis, E.; Balcázar-Muñoz, B.R.; Bustos-Saldaña, R.; González-Ortiz, M. Lipid profile, insulin secretion, and insulin sensitivity in psoriasis. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol., 2003, 48(6), 882-885.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1067/mjd.2003.446] [PMID: 12789179]
[9]
Setty, A.R.; Curhan, G.; Choi, H.K. Obesity, waist circumference, weight change, and the risk of psoriasis in women: Nurses’ Health Study II. Arch. Intern. Med., 2007, 167(15), 1670-1675.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archinte.167.15.1670] [PMID: 17698691]
[10]
Dreiher, J.; Weitzman, D.; Davidovici, B.; Shapiro, J.; Cohen, A.D. Psoriasis and dyslipidaemia: a population-based study. Acta Derm. Venereol., 2008, 88(6), 561-565.
[PMID: 19002339]
[11]
Qureshi, A.A.; Choi, H.K.; Setty, A.R.; Curhan, G.C. Psoriasis and the risk of diabetes and hypertension: a prospective study of US female nurses. Arch. Dermatol., 2009, 145(4), 379-382.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archdermatol.2009.48] [PMID: 19380659]
[12]
Sommer, D.M.; Jenisch, S.; Suchan, M.; Christophers, E.; Weichenthal, M. Increased prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in patients with moderate to severe psoriasis. Arch. Dermatol. Res., 2006, 298(7), 321-328.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00403-006-0703-z] [PMID: 17021763]
[13]
Neimann, A.L.; Shin, D.B.; Wang, X.; Margolis, D.J.; Troxel, A.B.; Gelfand, J.M. Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in patients with psoriasis. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol., 2006, 55(5), 829-835.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaad.2006.08.040] [PMID: 17052489]
[14]
Nijsten, T.; Wakkee, M. Complexity of the association between psoriasis and comorbidities. J. Invest. Dermatol., 2009, 129(7), 1601-1603.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/jid.2009.55] [PMID: 19521405]
[15]
Love, T.J.; Qureshi, A.A.; Karlson, E.W.; Gelfand, J.M.; Choi, H.K. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in psoriasis: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2006. Arch. Dermatol., 2011, 147(4), 419-424.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archdermatol.2010.370] [PMID: 21173301]
[16]
National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III).Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III) final report. Circulation, 2002, 106(25), 3143-3421.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/circ.106.25.3143] [PMID: 12485966]
[17]
Reich, K. The concept of psoriasis as a systemic inflammation: implications for disease management. J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol., 2012, 26(Suppl. 2), 3-11.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-3083.2011.04410.x] [PMID: 22356630]
[18]
Wakkee, M.; Thio, H.B.; Prens, E.P.; Sijbrands, E.J.; Neumann, H.A. Unfavorable cardiovascular risk profiles in untreated and treated psoriasis patients. Atherosclerosis, 2007, 190(1), 1-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2006.07.011] [PMID: 16942772]
[19]
Kremers, H.M.; McEvoy, M.T.; Dann, F.J.; Gabriel, S.E. Heart disease in psoriasis. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol., 2007, 57(2), 347-354.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaad.2007.02.007] [PMID: 17433490]
[20]
Azfar, R.S.; Gelfand, J.M. Psoriasis and metabolic disease: epidemiology and pathophysiology. Curr. Opin. Rheumatol., 2008, 20(4), 416-422.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BOR.0b013e3283031c99] [PMID: 18525354]
[21]
Kimball, A.B.; Wu, Y. Cardiovascular disease and classic cardiovascular risk factors in patients with psoriasis. Int. J. Dermatol., 2009, 48(11), 1147-1156.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-4632.2009.04075.x] [PMID: 20064165]
[22]
Pereira, R.R.; Amladi, S.T.; Varthakavi, P.K. A study of the prevalence of diabetes, insulin resistance, lipid abnormalities, and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with chronic plaque psoriasis. Indian J. Dermatol., 2011, 56(5), 520-526.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0019-5154.87144] [PMID: 22121269]
[23]
Tam, L.S.; Tomlinson, B.; Chu, T.T.; Li, M.; Leung, Y.Y.; Kwok, L.W.; Li, T.K.; Yu, T.; Zhu, Y.E.; Wong, K.C.; Kun, E.W.; Li, E.K. Cardiovascular risk profile of patients with psoriatic arthritis compared to controls--the role of inflammation. Rheumatology (Oxford), 2008, 47(5), 718-723.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/rheumatology/ken090] [PMID: 18400833]
[24]
Cohen, A.D.; Gilutz, H.; Henkin, Y.; Zahger, D.; Shapiro, J.; Bonneh, D.Y.; Vardy, D.A. Psoriasis and the metabolic syndrome. Acta Derm. Venereol., 2007, 87(6), 506-509.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2340/00015555-0297] [PMID: 17989888]
[25]
Chen, Y.J.; Wu, C.Y.; Shen, J.L.; Chu, S.Y.; Chen, C.K.; Chang, Y.T.; Chen, C.M. Psoriasis independently associated with hyperleptinemia contributing to metabolic syndrome. Arch. Dermatol., 2008, 144(12), 1571-1575.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archderm.144.12.1571] [PMID: 19075139]
[26]
Chen, Y.J.; Shen, J.L.; Wu, C.Y.; Chang, Y.T.; Chen, C.M.; Lee, F.Y. Elevated plasma osteopontin level is associated with occurrence of psoriasis and is an unfavorable cardiovascular risk factor in patients with psoriasis. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol., 2009, 60(2), 225-230.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaad.2008.09.046] [PMID: 19028408]
[27]
Takahashi, H.; Takahashi, I.; Honma, M.; Ishida-Yamamoto, A.; Iizuka, H. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Japanese psoriasis patients. J. Dermatol. Sci., 2010, 57(2), 143-144.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jdermsci.2009.11.002] [PMID: 20005080]
[28]
Al-Mutairi, N.; Al-Farag, S.; Al-Mutairi, A.; Al-Shiltawy, M. Comorbidities associated with psoriasis: an experience from the Middle East. J. Dermatol., 2010, 37(2), 146-155.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1346-8138.2009.00777.x] [PMID: 20175849]
[29]
Nisa, N.; Qazi, M.A. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with psoriasis. Indian J. Dermatol. Venereol. Leprol., 2010, 76(6), 662-665.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0378-6323.72462] [PMID: 21079309]
[30]
Choi, W.J.; Park, E.J.; Kwon, I.H.; Kim, K.H.; Kim, K.J. Association between psoriasis and cardiovascular risk factors in Korean patients. Ann. Dermatol., 2010, 22(3), 300-306.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.5021/ad.2010.22.3.300] [PMID: 20711266]
[31]
Bongiorno, M.R.; Doukaki, S.; Rizzo, D.; Aricò, M. The prevalence of the obesity in patients with moderate to severe psoriasis in Sicily populations. J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol., 2010, 24(1), 92-93.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-3083.2009.03309.x] [PMID: 19496896]
[32]
Balci, A.; Balci, D.D.; Yonden, Z.; Korkmaz, I.; Yenin, J.Z.; Celik, E.; Okumus, N.; Egilmez, E. Increased amount of visceral fat in patients with psoriasis contributes to metabolic syndrome. Dermatology (Basel), 2010, 220(1), 32-37.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000254482] [PMID: 19887761]
[33]
Mussallam, S.; Meza, B.; Elescano, Y. Metabolic syndrome as a factor associated with psoriasis in dermatological consultation. Folia Dermatol, 2010, 21, 67-70.
[34]
Langan, S.M.; Seminara, N.M.; Shin, D.B.; Troxel, A.B.; Kimmel, S.E.; Mehta, N.N.; Margolis, D.J.; Gelfand, J.M. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with psoriasis: a population-based study in the United Kingdom. J. Invest. Dermatol., 2012, 132(3 Pt 1), 556-562.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/jid.2011.365] [PMID: 22113483]
[35]
Zindancı, I.; Albayrak, O.; Kavala, M.; Kocaturk, E.; Can, B.; Sudogan, S.; Koç, M. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with psoriasis. ScientificWorldJournal, 2012, 2012312463
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1100/2012/312463] [PMID: 22654590]
[36]
Arias-Santiago, S.; Orgaz-Molina, J.; Castellote-Caballero, L.; Arrabal-Polo, M.Á.; García-Rodriguez, S.; Perandrés-López, R.; Ruiz, J.C.; Naranjo-Sintes, R.; Zubiaur, M.; Sancho, J.; Buendía-Eisman, A. Atheroma plaque, metabolic syndrome and inflammation in patients with psoriasis. Eur. J. Dermatol., 2012, 22(3), 337-344.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1684/ejd.2012.1714] [PMID: 22503884]
[37]
Madanagobalane, S.; Anandan, S. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in South Indian patients with psoriasis vulgaris and the relation between disease severity and metabolic syndrome: a hospital-based case-control study. Indian J. Dermatol., 2012, 57(5), 353-357.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0019-5154.100474] [PMID: 23112353]
[38]
Berrú-Chamba, V. Metabolic syndrome and inflammatory factors of cardiovascular risk in patients with psoriasis compared with non-psoriatic population who go to outpatient clinic of the Ecuadorian Psoriasis Foundation; National University of Loja: Loja, Ecuador, 2012.
[39]
Bartolo, L.; Valverde, J.; Rojas, P.; Vicuña, D.E. Metabolic syndrome as a risk factor in adults with psoriasis. Folia Dermatol, 2012, 23, 61-66.
[40]
Kim, G.W.; Park, H.J.; Kim, H.S.; Kim, S.H.; Ko, H.C.; Kim, B.S.; Kim, M.B.; Sim, E.K. Analysis of cardiovascular risk factors and metabolic syndrome in korean patients with psoriasis. Ann. Dermatol., 2012, 24(1), 11-15.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.5021/ad.2012.24.1.11] [PMID: 22363149]
[41]
Vayá, A.; Ricart, J.M.; Andino, B.; Todoli, J.; Nuñez, C.; Calvo, J.; Bautista, D. Psoriasis and hemorheology. Influence of the metabolic syndrome. Clin. Hemorheol. Microcirc., 2013, 55(3), 331-339.
[PMID: 23089885]
[42]
Damevska, K.; Neloska, L.; Gocev, G.; Mihova, M. Metabolic syndrome in untreated patients with psoriasis: case-control study. J. Dtsch. Dermatol. Ges., 2013, 11(12), 1169-1175.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ddg.12193] [PMID: 24267013]
[43]
Khunger, N.; Gupta, D.; Ramesh, V. Is psoriasis a new cutaneous marker for metabolic syndrome? A study in Indian patients. Indian J. Dermatol., 2013, 58(4), 313-314.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0019-5154.113958] [PMID: 23919006]
[44]
Karoli, R.; Fatima, J.; Shukla, V.; Dhillon, K.S.; Khanduri, S.; Maini, S.; Chandra, A. A study of cardio-metabolic risk profile in patients with psoriasis. J. Assoc. Physicians India, 2013, 61(11), 798-803.
[PMID: 24974491]
[45]
M G, G.; Talwar, A.; Kumar B C, S.; M, R.; A S, N.; H B, M. A clinical and epidemiological study of psoriasis and its association with various biochemical parameters in newly diagnosed cases. J. Clin. Diagn. Res., 2013, 7(12), 2901-2903.
[PMID: 24551670]
[46]
Topić, I.; Simić, D. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with psoriasis at Mostar Clinical Hospital. Acta Clin. Croat., 2013, 52(1), 53-58.
[PMID: 23837273]
[47]
Pehlevan, S.; Yetkin, D.O.; Bahadır, C.; Goktay, F.; Pehlevan, Y.; Kayatas, K.; Ince, N. Increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with psoriatic arthritis. Metab. Syndr. Relat. Disord., 2014, 12(1), 43-48.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/met.2013.0039] [PMID: 24206172]
[48]
Akcali, C.; Buyukcelik, B.; Kirtak, N.; Inaloz, S. Clinical and laboratory parameters associated with metabolic syndrome in Turkish patients with psoriasis. J. Int. Med. Res., 2014, 42(2), 386-394.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0300060513502891] [PMID: 24445696]
[49]
Parodi, A.; Aste, N.; Calvieri, C.; Cantoresi, F.; Carlesimo, M.; Fabbri, P.; Filosa, G.; Galluccio, A.; Lisi, P.; Micali, G.; Potenza, C.; Richetta, A.; Simonacci, M.; Trevisan, P.; Valenti, G.; Calvieri, S. Metabolic syndrome prevalence in psoriasis: a cross-sectional study in the Italian population. Am. J. Clin. Dermatol., 2014, 15(4), 371-377.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40257-014-0074-8] [PMID: 24756247]
[50]
Kokpol, C.; Aekplakorn, W.; Rajatanavin, N. Prevalence and characteristics of metabolic syndrome in South-East Asian psoriatic patients: a case-control study. J. Dermatol., 2014, 41(10), 898-902.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1346-8138.12614] [PMID: 25201476]
[51]
Tasliyurt, T.; Bilir, Y.; Sahin, S.; Seckin, H.Y.; Kaya, S.U.; Sivgin, H.; Demir, A.K.; Erdemir, F. Erectile dysfunction in patients with psoriasis: potential impact of the metabolic syndrome. Eur. Rev. Med. Pharmacol. Sci., 2014, 18(4), 581-586.
[PMID: 24610625]
[52]
Vásquez Bayas, CA Comparison of prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with psoriasis vs general population in the Centre of La Piel (Quito-Ecuador) from September to December. 2014.
[53]
Espinoza Hernández, C.J.; Lacy Niebla, R.M.; Soto López, M.E.; Kresch Tronik, N.S.; Vega-Memije, M.E. [Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with psoriasis]. Gac. Med. Mex., 2014, 150(4), 311-316.
[PMID: 25098216]
[54]
Lakshmi, S.; Nath, A.K.; Udayashankar, C. Metabolic syndrome in patients with psoriasis: A comparative study. Indian Dermatol. Online J., 2014, 5(2), 132-137.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/2229-5178.131080] [PMID: 24860744]
[55]
Sharma, S.C.; Sharma, P.K.; Dudeja, R.K. Study of Association of Atherosclerotic Risk Factors and Metabolic Syndrome in Patients of Psoriasis at a Tertiary Care Centre in North India: A Case Control Study. J. Assoc. Physicians India, 2015, 63(9), 28-31.
[PMID: 27608863]
[56]
Madanagobalane, S.; Sandhya, V.; Anandan, S.; Seshadri, K.G. Circulating adiponectin levels in Indian patients with psoriasis and its relation to metabolic syndrome. Indian J. Endocrinol. Metab., 2014, 18(2), 191-196.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/2230-8210.129110] [PMID: 24741515]
[57]
Albareda, M.; Ravella, A.; Castelló, M.; Saborit, S.; Peramiquel, L.; Vila, L. Metabolic syndrome and its components in patients with psoriasis. Springerplus, 2014, 3, 612.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/2193-1801-3-612] [PMID: 25392783]
[58]
Miller, I.M.; Ellervik, C.; Zarchi, K.; Ibler, K.S.; Vinding, G.R.; Knudsen, K.M.; Jemec, G.B. The association of metabolic syndrome and psoriasis: a population- and hospital-based cross-sectional study. J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol., 2015, 29(3), 490-497.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jdv.12595] [PMID: 24981070]
[59]
Irimie, M.; Oanţă, A.; Irimie, C.A.; Fekete, L.G.; Minea, D.I.; Pascu, A. Cardiovascular risk factors in patients with chronic plaque psoriasis: a case-control study on the Brasov County population. Acta Dermatovenerol. Croat., 2015, 23(1), 28-35.
[PMID: 25969910]
[60]
Danielsen, K.; Wilsgaard, T.; Olsen, A.O.; Eggen, A.E.; Olsen, K.; Cassano, P.A.; Furberg, A.S. Elevated odds of metabolic syndrome in psoriasis: a population-based study of age and sex differences. Br. J. Dermatol., 2015, 172(2), 419-427.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjd.13288] [PMID: 25059341]
[61]
Gopal, K.V.; Raj, G.D.; Rao, T.N. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Psoriasis–a case control study; Int J Med Res Rev, 2015, p. 3.
[62]
Owczarczyk-Saczonek, A.B.; Nowicki, R.J. Prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors, and metabolic syndrome and its components in patients with psoriasis aged 30 to 49 years. Postepy Dermatol. Alergol., 2015, 32(4), 290-295.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.5114/pdia.2014.40966] [PMID: 26366154]
[63]
Vadakayil, A.R.; Dandekeri, S.; Kambil, S.M.; Ali, N.M. Role of C-reactive protein as a marker of disease severity and cardiovascular risk in patients with psoriasis. Indian Dermatol. Online J., 2015, 6(5), 322-325.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/2229-5178.164483] [PMID: 26500861]
[64]
Barrea, L.; Macchia, P.E.; Di Somma, C.; Napolitano, M.; Balato, A.; Falco, A.; Savanelli, M.C.; Balato, N.; Colao, A.; Savastano, S. Bioelectrical phase angle and psoriasis: a novel association with psoriasis severity, quality of life and metabolic syndrome. J. Transl. Med., 2016, 14(1), 130.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12967-016-0889-6] [PMID: 27165166]
[65]
Ražnatović-Đurović, M.; Janković, J.; Janković, S. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Montenegrin patients with psoriasis. Vojnosanit. Pregl., 2016, 73(11), 1016-1021.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2298/VSP150114138R] [PMID: 29328640]
[66]
van der Voort, E.A.; Koehler, E.M.; Nijsten, T.; Stricker, B.H.; Hofman, A.; Janssen, H.L.; Schouten, J.N.; Wakkee, M. Increased prevalence of advanced liver fibrosis in patients with psoriasis: A cross-sectional analysis from the Rotterdam study. Acta Derm. Venereol., 2016, 96(2), 213-217.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2340/00015555-2161] [PMID: 26062958]
[67]
Das, S.; Manna, A.; Ahmad, N.; Banerjee, D.; Mondal, S.; Tayal, P. Psoriasis and metabolic syndrome: Co-incidence or correlation. Med J Dr. DY Patil University, 2016, 9, 177.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0975-2870.167986]
[68]
Kaur, R.; Gugle, A.; Kote, R.; Jadhav, V. A Case Control Study of Metabolic Syndrome in Psoriasis Vulgaris Patients at Tertiary Care Institute. MVP J Med Sc, 2016, 3, 79-82.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.18311/mvpjms/2016/v3/i2/736]
[69]
Praveen kumar U, Ganguly S, Ray L, Nanda SK, Kuruvila S. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in psoriasis patients and its relation to disease duration: a hospital-based case-control study. J. Clin. Diagn. Res., 2016, 10, WC01.
[70]
Sharma, Y.K.; Prakash, N.; Gupta, A. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome as per the NCEP and IDF definitions vis-a-vis severity and duration of psoriasis in a semi-urban Maharashtrian population: A case control study. Diabetes Metab. Syndr., 2016, 10(2)(Suppl. 1), S72-S76.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dsx.2016.01.033] [PMID: 26832843]
[71]
Kothiwala, S.K.; Khanna, N.; Tandon, N.; Naik, N.; Sharma, V.K.; Sharma, S.; Sreenivas, V. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular changes in patients with chronic plaque psoriasis and their correlation with disease severity: A hospital-based cross-sectional study. Indian J. Dermatol. Venereol. Leprol., 2016, 82(5), 510-518.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0378-6323.183638] [PMID: 27297282]
[72]
Kumar, S.; Nayak, C.S.; Padhi, T.; Rao, G.; Rao, A.; Sharma, V.K.; Srinivas, C.R. Epidemiological pattern of psoriasis, vitiligo and atopic dermatitis in India: Hospital-based point prevalence. Indian Dermatol. Online J., 2014, 5(Suppl. 1), S6-S8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/2229-5178.144499] [PMID: 25506573]
[73]
Itani, S.; Arabi, A.; Harb, D.; Hamzeh, D.; Kibbi, A.G. High prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with psoriasis in Lebanon: a prospective study. Int. J. Dermatol., 2016, 55(4), 390-395.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ijd.12811] [PMID: 26748974]
[74]
Aruna, C.; Rao, G.V.; Ramanamurthy, P.; Rambabu, P. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with psoriasis: A hospital-based case control study from a tertiary care centre in Andhra Pradesh. J. NTR Univ. Health Sc., 2016, 5, 13.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/2277-8632.178948]
[75]
Lai, Y.C.; Yew, Y.W. Psoriasis and uric acid: a population-based cross-sectional study. Clin. Exp. Dermatol., 2016, 41(3), 260-266.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ced.12781] [PMID: 26643816]
[76]
Brito-Luna, M.J.; Villanueva-Quintero, D.G.; Sandoval-Talamantes, A.K.; Fafutis-Morris, M.; Graciano-Machuca, O.; Sanchez-Hernandez, P.E.; Alvarado-Navarro, A. Correlation of IL-12, IL-22, and IL-23 in patients with psoriasis and metabolic syndrome. Preliminary report. Cytokine, 2016, 85, 130-136.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cyto.2016.06.020] [PMID: 27344023]
[77]
Milčić, D.; Janković, S.; Vesić, S.; Milinković, M.; Marinković, J.; Ćirković, A.; Janković, J. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with psoriasis: a hospital-based cross-sectional study. An. Bras. Dermatol., 2017, 92(1), 46-51.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/abd1806-4841.20175178] [PMID: 28225956]
[78]
Salunke, A.S.; Nagargoje, M.V.; Belgaumkar, V.A.; Tolat, S.N.; Chavan, R.B. Association of metabolic syndrome in chronic plaque psoriasis patients and their correlation with disease severity, duration and age: A case control study from western Maharashtra. J. Clin. Diagn. Res., 2017, 11(8), WC06-WC10.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.7860/JCDR/2017/24390.10348] [PMID: 28969252]
[79]
Hazarika, D.; Pavan, R. Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in Newly Diagnosed Psoriasis Patients: A Case Control Study from a Tertiary Care Hospital in Assam. Cytokines, 2017, 8, 9.
[80]
Singh, S.; Dogra, S.; Shafiq, N.; Bhansali, A.; Malhotra, S. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in psoriasis and levels of Interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor-α in psoriasis patients with metabolic syndrome: Indian tertiary care hospital study. Int. J. Appl. Basic Med. Res., 2017, 7(3), 169-175.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijabmr.IJABMR_330_16] [PMID: 28904916]
[81]
Girisha, B.S.; Thomas, N. Metabolic Syndrome in Psoriasis among Urban South Indians: A Case Control Study Using SAM-NCEP Criteria. J. Clin. Diagn. Res., 2017, 11(2), WC01-WC04.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.7860/JCDR/2017/24717.9376] [PMID: 28384966]
[82]
Higgins, J.P.T.; Green, S. Cochrane handbook for systematic reviews of interventions., Available at: . http://www.cochrane.org (Accessed on July 1, 2019).
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9780470712184]
[83]
Higgins, J.P.; Thompson, S.G.; Deeks, J.J.; Altman, D.G. Measuring inconsistency in meta-analyses. BMJ, 2003, 327(7414), 557-560.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.327.7414.557] [PMID: 12958120]
[84]
Egger, M.; Smith, G.; Altman, D. Systemic reviews in healthcare. Meta-analysis in context, 2nd ed; British Medical Journal Books: London, 2001.
[85]
Sedgwick, P. Meta-analyses: heterogeneity and subgroup analysis. BMJ, 2013, 24, 346-f4040.
[86]
Wells, G.A.; Shea, B.; O’Connell, D.; Peterson, J.; Welch, V.; Losos, M.; Tugwell, P. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) for assessing the quality of nonrandomised studies in meta-analyses; Ottawa Hospital Research Institute: Ottawa, ON, 2009.
[87]
Pufulete, M.; Higgins, J.P.; Rogers, C.A.; Dreyer, L.; Hollingworth, W.; Dayer, M.; Nightingale, A.; McDonagh, T.; Reeves, B.C. Protocol for a systematic review and individual participant data meta-analysis of B-type natriuretic peptide-guided therapy for heart failure. Syst. Rev., 2014, 3, 41-49.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/2046-4053-3-41] [PMID: 24886933]
[88]
Mathur, R. National Ethical Guidelines for Biomedical and Health Research Involving Human Participants; Director-General Indian Council of Medical Research: New Delhi, 2017, pp. 1-187.
[89]
Gisondi, P.; Fostini, A.C.; Fossà, I.; Girolomoni, G.; Targher, G. Psoriasis and the metabolic syndrome. Clin. Dermatol., 2018, 36(1), 21-28.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clindermatol.2017.09.005] [PMID: 29241748]
[90]
Stefanadi, E.C.; Dimitrakakis, G.; Antoniou, C.K.; Challoumas, D.; Punjabi, N.; Dimitrakaki, I.A.; Punjabi, S.; Stefanadis, C.I. Metabolic syndrome and the skin: a more than superficial association. Reviewing the association between skin diseases and metabolic syndrome and a clinical decision algorithm for high risk patients. Diabetol. Metab. Syndr., 2018, 10, 9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13098-018-0311-z] [PMID: 29483947]
[91]
Boehncke, W.H. Systemic inflammation and cardiovascular comorbidity in psoriasis patients: causes and consequences. Front. Immunol., 2018, 9, 579.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2018.00579] [PMID: 29675020]
[92]
Coimbra, S.; Oliveira, H.; Neuparth, M.J.; Proença, J.B.; Figueiredo, A.; Rocha-Pereira, P. Metabolic syndrome in psoriasis patients. Residual inflammation and pro-inflammatory IL17 signalling reduce length of remission. A follow-up study. Br. J. Dermatol., 2015, 174, 414-416.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjd.14013] [PMID: 26148122]
[93]
Boehncke, W.H.; Boehncke, S.; Tobin, A.M.; Kirby, B. The ‘psoriatic march’: a concept of how severe psoriasis may drive cardiovascular comorbidity. Exp. Dermatol., 2011, 20(4), 303-307.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0625.2011.01261.x] [PMID: 21410760]
[94]
Shlyankevich, J.; Mehta, N.N.; Krueger, J.G.; Strober, B.; Gudjonsson, J.E.; Qureshi, A.A.; Tebbey, P.W.; Kimball, A.B. Accumulating evidence for the association and shared pathogenic mechanisms between psoriasis and cardiovascular-related comorbidities. Am. J. Med., 2014, 127(12), 1148-1153.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjmed.2014.08.008] [PMID: 25149424]
[95]
Snekvik, I.; Nilsen, T.I.L.; Romundstad, P.R.; Saunes, M. Metabolic syndrome and risk of incident psoriasis: prospective data from the HUNT Study, Norway. Br. J. Dermatol., 2019, 180(1), 94-99.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjd.16885] [PMID: 29904911]
[96]
Ferdinando, L.B.; Fukumoto, P.K.; Sanches, S.; Fabricio, L.H.Z.; Skare, T.L. Metabolic syndrome and psoriasis: a study in 97 patients., Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992), 2018, 64(4), 368-373.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1806-9282.64.04.368] [PMID: 30133617]
[97]
Holm, J.G.; Thomsen, S.F. Type 2 diabetes and psoriasis: links and risks. Psoriasis: Targets and Therapy, 2019, 9(1)
[98]
Singh, S.; Young, P.; Armstrong, AW. An update on psoriasis and metabolic syndrome: A meta-analysis of observational studies. PLoS One, 2017. 12e0181039
[99]
Miller, I.M.; Ellervik, C.; Yazdanyar, S.; Jemec, G.B. Meta-analysis of psoriasis, cardiovascular disease, and associated risk factors. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol., 2013, 69(6), 1014-1024.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaad.2013.06.053] [PMID: 24238156]
[100]
Jin, J.J.; Zeng, S.W. Association between psoriasis and metabolic syndrome: a meta-analysis from 12 case control studies. Int. J. Clin. Exp. Med., 2016, 9, 17933-17939.
[101]
Rodríguez-Zúñiga, M.J.M.; García-Perdomo, H.A. Systematic review and meta-analysis of the association between psoriasis and metabolic syndrome. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol., 2017, 77(4), 657-666.e8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaad.2017.04.1133] [PMID: 28917453]
[102]
Sarmiento Méndez, L.M.; Roca-Cusachs Coll, A.; Arroyo Díaz, J.A.; Benet Gustà, M.T.; Solé Villa, M.J.; Franco Peral, M. [Comparison of the definitions of the metabolic syndrome according to ATP III and IDF]. Rev. Clin. Esp., 2008, 208(7), 333-338.
[PMID: 18625179]
[103]
Nilsson, P.M.; Engström, G.; Hedblad, B. The metabolic syndrome and incidence of cardiovascular disease in non-diabetic subjects--a population-based study comparing three different definitions. Diabet. Med., 2007, 24(5), 464-472.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-5491.2007.02142.x] [PMID: 17381496]
[104]
Athyros, V.G.; Ganotakis, E.S.; Elisaf, M.S.; Liberopoulos, E.N.; Goudevenos, I.A.; Karagiannis, A. GREECE-METS Collaborative Group.Prevalence of vascular disease in metabolic syndrome using three proposed definitions. Int. J. Cardiol., 2007, 117(2), 204-210.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2006.04.078] [PMID: 16854482]
[105]
Sliem, H.A.; Ahmed, S.; Nemr, N.; El-Sherif, I. Metabolic syndrome in the Middle East. Indian J. Endocrinol. Metab., 2012, 16(1), 67-71.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/2230-8210.91193] [PMID: 22276254]


Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as

Article Details

VOLUME: 20
ISSUE: 5
Year: 2020
Page: [703 - 717]
Pages: 15
DOI: 10.2174/1871530319666191008170409
Price: $65

Article Metrics

PDF: 33
HTML: 3