The association between thyroid disease and cardiovascular manifestations is significant
and undeniable. Previous studies have explained several aspects of the effects of thyroid hormone
on the heart and cardiovascular system. Accordingly, both hyper and hypothyroidism can cause important
alterations in cardiac rhythm, output and contractility as well as vascular resistance and
blood pressure. Since treating the thyroid abnormality, especially in its initial stages, could lead to a
significant improvement in most of its resultant cardiovascular disturbances, early suspicion and
recognition of thyroid dysfunction, is necessary in patients with cardiovascular manifestations. In
this in-depth review, we discuss the physiological roles as well as the effects of abnormal levels of
thyroid hormones on the cardiovascular system. We also review the effects of the medications used
for the treatment of hyper and hypothyroidism on cardiac function. In the end, we discuss the association
between thyroid function and amiodarone, an effective and frequently-used antiarrhythmic
drug, because of its well-known effects on the thyroid.
Keywords: Hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, heart, amiodarone, myocardium, thyroid disease.
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