The Cold Case of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 6: Unjust Detention in the Retina?

Author(s): E. Palazzo*, S. Boccella, I. Marabese, G. Pierretti, F. Guida, S. Maione

Journal Name: Current Neuropharmacology

Volume 18 , Issue 2 , 2020

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Graphical Abstract:


Abstract:

It is a common opinion that metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 6 (mGluR6) is expressed exclusively in the retina, and in particular in the dendrites of ON-bipolar cells. Glutamate released in darkness from photoreceptors activates mGluR6, which is negatively associated with a membrane non-selective cation channel, the transient receptor potential melanoma-related 1, TRPM1, resulting in cell hyperpolarization. The evidence that mGluR6 is expressed not only in the retina but also in other tissues and cell populations has accumulated over time. The expression of mGluR6 has been identified in microglia, bone marrow stromal and prostate cancer cells, B lymphocytes, melanocytes and keratinocytes and non-neural tissues such as testis, kidney, cornea, conjunctiva, and eyelid. The receptor also appears to be expressed in brain areas, such as the hypothalamus, cortex, hippocampus, nucleus of tractus solitarius, superior colliculus, axons of the corpus callosum and accessory olfactory bulb. The pharmacological activation of mGluR6 in the hippocampus produced an anxiolytic-like effect and in the periaqueductal gray analgesic potential. This review aims to collect all the evidence on the expression and functioning of mGluR6 outside the retina that has been accumulated over the years for a broader view of the potential of the receptor whose retinal confinement appears understimated.

Keywords: mGluR6, homo-AMPA, anxiolytic-like effect, periaqueductal grey, rostroventromedial medulla.

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VOLUME: 18
ISSUE: 2
Year: 2020
Page: [120 - 125]
Pages: 6
DOI: 10.2174/1570159X17666191001141849
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