Objectives: To determine the prevalence of, and factors associated with, people with foot deformities,
among patients with diabetes in Jordan.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1000 diabetic participants recruited from the National
Center for Diabetes, Endocrinology, and Genetics in Jordan. Participants had their feet clinically
examined to detect the following foot deformity outcomes: Hallux valgus, claw/hammer toe, prominent
metatarsal heads, limited joint mobility, pes cavus, Charcot foot, and amputations. Sociodemographic
and health variables were also collected from participants’ interviews, medical records, or clinical examination.
Logistic regression was used to analyse associations between variables and each foot deformity
Results: Of the 1000 diabetic patients: Hallux valgus was found in 17.4%, claw\hammer toe in 16%,
prominent metatarsal head in 14.2%, limited joint mobility in 9.4%, pes cavus in 3.2%, Charcot foot in
2.1%, and amputations in 1.7%. Hallux valgus was associated with gender (p=0.012), age (p<0.01) and
shoe choices (p=0.031); claw\hammer toe was associated with age (p=0.04), retinopathy (p<0.001), sensory
and painful neuropathy (p<0.001); limited joint mobility was associated with age only (p=0.001);
Charcot foot was associated with glycemic control (p=0.016), hypertension (p<0.000), sensory neuropathy
(p<0.001), and painful neuropathy (p<0.001); and, amputations were associated with duration of
diabetes (p<0.043), sensory neuropathy (p=0.001), and painful neuropathy (p=0.001).
Conclusion: Prevalence of different foot deformities in Jordan variedbetween 1.7% - 17.4%. Sociodemographic
factors such as age, gender and shoes choices or presence of diabetes-related microvascular
complications (neuropathy and retinopathy) or hypertension were independently associated with foot
deformities among the Jordanian diabetic population.