Severe Group A and Group B Streptococcus Diseases at a Pediatric ICU: Are they Still Sensitive to the Penicillins?

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Author(s): Kam Lun Hon, Tai Cheong Chow, Tsun Sum Cheung, Wai Tin Lam, Lok Tin Hung, King Woon So, Margaret Ip, Su Yun Qian.

Journal Name: Current Clinical Pharmacology

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Background: Group A β-hemolytic streptococcus (GAS) and Group B streptococcus (GBS) are two common pathogens that are associated with many diseases in children. Severe infections as a result of these two streptococci are albeit uncommon but associated with high mortality and morbidity, and often necessitate intensive care support. This paper aims to review mortality and morbidity severe infection associated with GAS and GBS isolations at a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU).

Methods: All children admitted to PICU of a teaching hospital between October 2002 and May 2018 with laboratory-proven GAS and GBS isolations were included.

Results: There were 19 patients (0.7% PICU admissions) with streptococcal isolations (GAS, n=11 and GBS, n=8). Comparing to GAS, GBS affected infants were younger (median age 0.13 versus 5.47 years, 95% CI, 1.7-8.5, p=0.0003), and cerebrospinal fluids more likely positive (p = 0.0181). All GAS and GBS were sensitive to penicillin (CLSI: MICs 0.06 – 2.0 μg/mL), with majority of GAS sensitive to clindamycin and erythromycin, and half of the GBS resistant to clindamycin and erythromycin. Co-infections were prevalent, but viruses were only isolated with GAS (p=0.024). Isolation of GAS and GBS was associated with nearly 40% mortality and high rates of mechanical ventilation and inotropic supports. All non-survivors had high mortality (PIM2) and sepsis scores.

Conclusions: Severe GAS and GBS are rare but associated with high mortality and rates of mechanical ventilation and inotropic supports in PICU. The streptococci are invariably sensitive to penicillin. The high PIM2 and Sepsis scores suggest that prompt recognition of sepsis and timely judicious institution of antibiotics and intensive care support may be life-saving for these devastating infections.

Keywords: Group A streptococcus, Group B streptococcus, Penicillin

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(E-pub Ahead of Print)
DOI: 10.2174/1574884714666190926124714

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