Identification and Quantification of Phenolic Compounds in Grains of Biofortified Cowpea Cultivars, Before and After Cooking

Author(s): Nara Vanessa dos Anjos Barros, Bruna Barbosa de Abreu, Débora Thaís Sampaio da Silva, Ana Karine de Oliveira Soares, Maurisrael de Moura Rocha, Regilda Saraiva dos Reis Moreira-Araújo*

Journal Name: Current Nutrition & Food Science

Volume 16 , Issue 1 , 2020

Become EABM
Become Reviewer

Graphical Abstract:


Abstract:

Objective: This study aimed to identify and quantify phenolic compounds in the grains of biofortified cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) cultivars before and after cooking.

Methods: We analyzed two cultivars of genetically improved cowpeas, namely BRS Aracê and BRS Tumucumaque. Raw and cooked samples of the cultivars were analyzed (in triplicate). The concentrations of phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanins, and flavanols, as well as the antioxidant activity, were determined. Phenolic compounds were identified and quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography.

Results: Grains of cultivar BRS Tumucumaque had higher concentrations of total phenolic compounds before (297.23 ± 4.24 (mean ± standard deviation) mg/100 g) and after (147.15 ± 6.94 mg/100 g) cooking, and higher concentrations of total flavonoids before (49.36 ± 2.02 mg/100 g) and after (23.97± 0.67 mg/100 g) cooking. Anthocyanins were not measured in the grains of either cultivars. There was a statistically significant reduction in the concentration of total flavanols after cooking, with the greater retention in BRS Aracê. Similarly, the antioxidant activity was significantly reduced after cooking, with greater reductions in BRS Tumucumaque than in BRS Aracê. Five phenolic acids were identified and quantified, including gallic, caffeic, and ferulic acids.

Conclusion: We conclude that cooking affected the concentrations of phenolic compounds in the cultivars, as well as the antioxidant activity exhibited by these cultivars. The cultivars contained beneficial compounds that can contribute to disease prevention and health maintenance.

Keywords: Antioxidant activity, bioactive compounds, phenolic acids, thermal processing, total flavanols, total flavonoids, Vigna unguiculata.

[1]
Conab, Companhia Nacional de Abastecimento. Acompanhamento da Safra Brasileira de Grãos - Safra 2017/18. Brasília. Conab 2018; 5(11): 148.
[2]
Sombié PAED, Compaoré M, Coulibaly AY, Ouédraogo JT, Tignégré JS, Kiendrébéogo M. Antioxidant and phytochemical studies of 31 cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata (Walp L)) genotypes from Burkina. Foods 2018; 7(9): 1-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods7090143] [PMID: 30177591]
[3]
Barros NVA, Rocha MM, Glória MBA, Araújo MAM, Moreira-Araújo RSR. Effect of cooking on the bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity in grains cowpea cultivars. Cienc Agron 2017; 48(5): 824-31.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.5935/1806-6690.20170097]
[4]
Marathe SA, Rajalakshmi V, Jamdar SN, Sharma A. Comparative study on antioxidant activity of different varieties of commonly consumed legumes in India. Food Chem Toxicol 2011; 49(9): 2005-12.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2011.04.039] [PMID: 21601612]
[5]
Moreira-Araújo RSR, Sampaio GR, Soares RAM, Silva CP, Araújo MAM, Arêas JAG. Identification and quantification of antioxidant compounds in cowpea. Cienc Agron 2017; 48(5): 799-805.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.5935/1806-6690.20170093]
[6]
Nderitu AM, Dykes L, Awika JM, Minnaar A, Duodu KG. Phenolic composition and inhibitory effect against oxidative DNA damage of cooked cowpeas as affected by simulated in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. Food Chem 2013; 141(3): 1763-71.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.05.001] [PMID: 23870889]
[7]
Zhao Y, Du SK, Wang H, Cai M. In vitro antioxidant activity of extracts from common legumes. Food Chem 2014; 152: 462-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.12.006] [PMID: 24444962]
[8]
Zhao C, Liu Y, Lai S, et al. J. Effects of domestic cooking process on the chemical and biological properties of dietary phytochemicals. Trends Food Sci Technol 2019; 85: 55-66.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2019.01.004]
[9]
Adebooye OC, Singh V. Effect of cooking on the profile of phenolics, tannins, phytate, amino acid, fatty acid and mineral nutrients of whole-grains and decorticated vegetable cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.). J Food Qual 2007; 30(6): 1101-20.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-4557.2007.00155.x]
[10]
Cai R, Hettiarachchy NS, Jalaluddin M. High-performance liquid chromatography determination of phenolic constituents in 17 varieties of cowpeas. J Agric Food Chem 2003; 51(6): 1623-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf020867b] [PMID: 12617595]
[11]
Moreira-Araújo RSR, Sampaio GR, Soares RAM, Silva CP, Araújo MAM, Arêas JAG. Identification and quantification of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in cowpeas of BRS Xiquexique cultivar. Rev Caatinga 2018; 31(1): 209-16.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1983-21252018v31n124rc]
[12]
Zia-Ul-Haq M, Ahmad S, Amarowicz R, De Feo V. Antioxidant activity of the extracts of some cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp.) cultivars commonly consumed in Pakistan. Molecules 2013; 18(2): 2005-17.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules18022005] [PMID: 23385338]
[13]
Rufino MSM, Alves RE, Brito ES, Pérez-Jiménez J, Saura-Calixto F, Mancini Filho J. Bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacities of 18 non-traditional tropical fruits from Brazil. Food Chem 2010; 121(4): 996-1002.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2010.01.037]
[14]
Singleton VI, Rossi J. Colorimetry of total phenolic with phosphomolybdic-phosphotungstic acid agents. Am J Enol Vitic 1965; 16(3): 144-58.
[15]
González-Aguilar GA, Villegas-Ochoa MA, Martínez-Téllez MA, Gardea AA, Ayala-Zavala JF. Improving antioxidant capacity of fresh-cut mangoes treated with UV-C. J Food Sci 2007; 72(3): S197-202.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-3841.2007.00295.x] [PMID: 17995814]
[16]
Giusti MM, Wrolstad RE. Anthocyanins: characterization and measurement with UV visible spectroscopy. CPFAC 2001; 1: 1-13.
[17]
Price ML, Scoyoc SV, Butler LG. A critical evaluation of the vanillin reaction as an assay for tannin in sorghum grain. J Agric Food Chem 1978; 26(5): 1214-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf60219a031]
[18]
Pereira CA, Yariwake JH, Lanças FM, Wauters JN, Tits M, Angenot L. A HPTLC densitometric determination of flavonoids from Passiflora alata, P. edulis, P. incarnata and P. caerulea and comparison with HPLC method. Phytochem Anal 2004; 15(4): 241-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pca.778] [PMID: 15311844]
[19]
Tiberti LA, Yariwake JH, Ndjoko K, Hostettmann K. Identification of flavonols in leaves of Maytenus ilicifolia and M. aquifolium (Celastraceae) by LC/UV/MS analysis. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2007; 846(1-2): 378-84.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jchromb.2006.09.014] [PMID: 17011840]
[20]
Brand-Williams W, Cuvelier ME, Berset C. Use of a free radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity. Lebensm Wiss Technol 1995; 28(1): 25-30.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0023-6438(95)80008-5]
[21]
Re R, Pellegrini N, Proteggente A, Pannala A, Yang M, Rice-Evans C. Antioxidant activity applying an improved ABTS radical cation decolorization assay. Free Radic Biol Med 1999; 26(9-10): 1231-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0891-5849(98)00315-3] [PMID: 10381194]
[22]
Benzie IFF, Strain JJ. The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) as a measure of “antioxidant power”: the FRAP assay. Anal Biochem 1996; 239(1): 70-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/abio.1996.0292] [PMID: 8660627]
[23]
Arnous A, Makris D, Kefalas P. Correlation of pigment and flavanol content with antioxidant properties in selected aged regional wines from Greece. J Food Compos Anal 2002; 15(6): 655-65.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jfca.2002.1070]
[24]
SPSS, Statistical Package for the Social Sciences – SPPS, versão 17.0. 2006.
[25]
Hilbe J. Methods of Statistical Model Estimation. Chapman & Hall/CRC Press Boca Raton, FL. 2013.
[26]
Adjei-Fremah S, Jackai LEN, Worku M. Analysis of phenolic content and antioxidant properties of selected cowpea varieties tested in bovine peripheral blood. Am J Anim Vet Sci 2015; 10(4): 235-45.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3844/ajavsp.2015.235.245]
[27]
Cavalcante RBM, Araújo MAM, Rocha MM, Moreira-Araújo RSR. Effect of thermal processing on chemical compositions, bioactive compounds, and antioxidant activities of cowpea cultivars. Rev Caatinga 2017; 30(4): 1050-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1983-21252017v30n426rc]
[28]
Salawu SO, Ibukun EO, David O, Ola-Salawu BB. Effect of Callosobruchus maculatus infestation on the nutrient-antinutrient composition, phenolic composition and antioxidant activities of some varieties of cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata). Adv J Food Sci Technol 2014; 6(3): 322-32.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.19026/ajfst.6.31]
[29]
Wang ML, Gillaspie AG, Morris JB, Pittman RN. Flavonoid content in different legume germplasm seeds quantified by HPLC. Plant Genet Resour 2008; 6(1): 62-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1479262108923807]
[30]
Aziagba BO, Okeke CU, Ezeabara CA, Ilodibia C, Ufele A. Determination of the flavonoid composition of seven varieties of Vigna unguiculata (L.) walp as food and therapeutic values. Univers J Appl Sci 2017; 5(1): 1-4.
[31]
Deng G-F, Lin X, Xu X-R, Gao L-L, Xie J-F, Li H-B. Antioxidant capacities and total phenolic contents of 56 vegetables. J Funct Foods 2013; 5(1): 260-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jff.2012.10.015]
[32]
Ha TJ, Lee M-H, Jeong YN, et al. Anthocyanins in cowpea.[Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp ssp. unguiculata]. Food Sci Biotechnol 2010; 19(3): 821-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10068-010-0115-x]
[33]
Ramírez-Cárdenas L, Leonel AJ, Costa NMB. Efeito do processamento doméstico sobre o teor de nutrientes e de fatores antinutricionais de diferentes cultivares de feijão comum. Food Sci Technol (Campinas) 2008; 28(1): 200-13.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0101-20612008000100029]
[34]
Nassouru MA, Njintang YN, Noubissié TJ-B, Nguimbou RM, Bell JM. Genetics of seed flavonoid content and antioxidant activity in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.). Crop J 2016; 4(5): 391-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cj.2016.05.011]
[35]
Chaieb N, González JL, López-Mesas M, Bouslama M, Valiente M. Polyphenols content and antioxidant capacity of thirteen faba bean (Vicia faba L.) genotypes cultivated in Tunisia. Food Res Int 2011; 44(4): 970-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2011.02.026]
[36]
Awika JM, Duodu KG. Bioactive polyphenols and peptides in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and their health promoting properties: a review. J Funct Foods 2017; 38: 686-97.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jff.2016.12.002]
[37]
Luthria DL, Pastor-Corrales MA. Phenolic acid content of fifteen dry edible beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) varieties. J Food Compos Anal 2005; 19(2-3): 205-11.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2005.09.003]
[38]
Siddhuraju P, Becker K. The antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of processed cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp.) seed extracts. Food Chem 2007; 101(1): 10-9.
[39]
Nayeem N, Asdaq SMB, Salem H. AHEl-Alfqy S. Gallic acid: a promising lead molecule for drug development. J Appl Pharm Sci 2016; 8(2): 1-4.
[40]
Kumar N, Pruthi V. Potential applications of ferulic acid from natural sources. Biotechnol Rep (Amst) 2014; 16(4): 86-93.


Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as

Article Details

VOLUME: 16
ISSUE: 1
Year: 2020
Page: [105 - 113]
Pages: 9
DOI: 10.2174/1573401315666190925123800
Price: $65

Article Metrics

PDF: 18
HTML: 3
EPUB: 1
PRC: 1