Introduction: Vaginismus includes some psychological conditions such as fear of pain
and avoidance from penetration. There is little knowledge about the effects of vaginismus.
Objective: The present study aims to present the bio-psychosocial consequences of vaginismus in
Methods: The method of the present study is a review, which is conducted on the available resources.
All relevant studies were included to present effects of vaginismus on the women.
Results: Women who have vaginismus have many problems with self-identity, psychological and
reproductive lives. Most of the effects of vaginismus lead to another deep effect on women. Women
with vaginismus mostly describe themselves negatively. This negative self-perception affects
women’s self-esteem levels which cause psychiatric disorders. The psychiatric disorders have been
associated with vaginismus as a reason and result. It is stated in the studies that the general anxiety
and, penetration specific anxiety are related to vaginismus. This result reflects that women with
vaginismus have more anxiety about penetration. Women with vaginismus encounter reproductive
problems, who are more likely to encounter increased cesarean section and fertility problems, they
are reluctant to seek health care services, especially due to fear of the gynaecological examination.
Conclusion: Although vaginismus is a common problem, there is little information about the effects
of vaginismus on women. Vaginismus causes psychiatric disorders and reproductive problems. The
researchers should examine how women live with vaginismus. It is also suggested that psychotherapy
techniques should include couples interventions and, researchers should examine psychological
health of women deeply.