Biological and synthetic nanostructures can influence both glia and neurons in the central nervous
system. Neurons represent only a small proportion (about 10%) of cells in the brain, whereas glial cells are the
most abundant cell type. Non-targeted nanomedicines are mainly internalized by glia, in particular microglia, and
to a lesser extent by astrocytes. Internalized nanomedicines by glia indirectly modify the functional status of
neurons. The mechanisms of biochemical, morphological and functional changes of neural cells exposed to
nanomedicines are still not well-understood. This minireview provides a cross-section of morphological and
biochemical changes in glial cells and neurons exposed to different classes of hard and soft nanostructures.
Keywords: Microglia, astrocytes, neurons, nanoparticles, gold nanoparticles, dendritic polyglycerols, lysosomes, confocal microscopy, organotypic
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