Intervertebral disc (IVD) has a pivotal role in the maintenance of flexible motion. IVD degeneration
is one of the primary causes of low back pain and disability, which seriously influences
patients’ health, and increases the family and social economic burden. Recently, stem cell therapy has
been proven to be more effective on IVD degeneration disease. However, stem cell senescence is the
limiting factor in the IVD degeneration treatment. Senescent stem cells have a negative effect on the
self-repair on IVD degeneration. In this review, we delineate that the factors such as telomerase shortening,
DNA damage, oxidative stress, microenvironment and exosomes will induce stem cell aging.
Recent studies tried to delay the aging of stem cells by regulating the expression of aging-related genes
and proteins, changing the activity of telomerase, improving the survival microenvironment of stem
cells and drug treatment. Understanding the mechanism of stem cell aging and exploring new approaches
to delay or reverse stem cell aging asks for research on the repair of the degenerated disc.