Background: Honey is used for nutritional, medicinal and industrial purposes and maintenance
of the requisite quality is of great importance.
Objective: This study distinctively aimed to portray twelve randomly selected profitable honeys accessible
in the North West Nigerian market with regards to floral nectar origin, physicochemical factors,
antimicrobial activity and microbial safety evaluations.
Methods: Twelve (12) samples of honey sourced from diverse places in the Northwest of Nigeria
were analyzed for their pollen spectra, physicochemical parameters, antimicrobial activity and microbiological
Results: Dominant pollen types from the analysis were Borassus (72%), Piptadenia africana (39%),
Lophira (91%) and Combretaceae (91%) for Sokoto, Jigawa, Kaduna and Katsina States honey samples,
respectively. The physicochemical analysis of the samples revealed that pH was in range from
3.32 to 4.25, moisture content varied from 16.37% to 18.70%, ash content 0.23% to 0.93% and free
acidity 6.83meq/Kg to 32.00meq/kg, electrical conductivity ranged from 0.13mS/cm to 1.40mS/cm,
reducing sugars was 42.85% to 49.30%, sucrose content was 0.74% to 6.75%, Hydroxymethylfurfural
value was 11.0mg/Kg to 80.20mg/Kg, diastase level ranged from 7.23 to 43.5 and Proline content
ranged from 104.67mg/Kg to 666.67mg/Kg. The antimicrobial evaluation revealed significant zone
of inhibition to E. coli, ranging from 19-38 mm at concentrations (12.5-100mg/mL) tested as compared
to all other test organisms.
Conclusion: The fallouts of microbiological investigation of the samples revealed mould and bacteria,
with counts less than 102CFU/g. The findings showed that the attributes of the tested honey samples
maintained criteria of international standards.