Objectives: The aim of the study was to investigate if the supplementation with multistrain
probiotics may be able to modulate T cell response in HIV-1 infected patients and to evaluate
the anti-HIV activity of probiotic by studying fecal water (FW) samples.
Methods: Three HIV-1-positive patients (Pt1, Pt2 and Pt3) on long-term suppressive combined
antiretroviral therapy (cART) received a specific multi-strain probiotic supplementation (Vivomixx
®), for six months (T6). Levels of T cell subsets were evaluated by flow cytometry. Anti-
HIV activity of FW samples was evaluated in vitro.
Results: CD4+ T cells levels increased in all HIV-1 infected patients whereas activation markers
(CD38 and HLA-DR) were decreased both on CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. FW samples presented an
increased inhibitory activity against HIV-1 compared to T0 (FW-Pt1: T0 =40%, T6 = 65% of reduction;
FW Pt2: T0 = 26%, T6 = 46% of reduction; FW Pt3: T0 = 47%, T6 = 94% of reduction).
Discussion: Our data suggest that the administration of the specific probiotic formulation improves
the antiviral status of people living with HIV-1 under cART, also modulating T cell response.
Conclusion: Anti-HIV activity of FW may have several public health and social implications for
sexually transmitted diseases that need to be further explored.