DNA methylation is considered as a crucial part of epigenetic modifications and a popular
research topic in recent decades. It usually occurs with a methyl group adding to the fifth carbon
atom of cytosine while the base sequence of DNA remains unchanged. DNA methylation has significant
influences on maintaining cell functions, genetic imprinting, embryonic development and
tumorigenesis procedures and hence the analysis of DNA methylation is of great medical significance.
With the development of analytical techniques and further research on DNA methylation,
numerous DNA methylation detection strategies based on biosensing technology have been developed
to fulfill various study requirements. This article reviewed the development of electrochemistry
and optical biosensing analysis of DNA methylation in recent years; in addition, we also reviewed
some recent advances in the detection of DNA methylation using new techniques, such as
nanopore biosensors, and highlighted the key technical and biological challenges involved in these
methods. We hope this paper will provide useful information for the selection and establishment of
analysis of DNA methylation.