Reduction of carbon dioxide into formic acid using transition metal complexes as catalysts
is a research area of abiding importance. Although ruthenium(II) complexes as ‘molecular catalysts’
have received much attention, use of ruthenium(III) complexes in the selective reduction of carbon dioxide
into formic acid has recently been explored. This review focuses on the recent research progress
in the use of a ruthenium(III) complex containing the ‘edta’ ligand (edta4- = ethylenediaminetetraacetate)
as catalyst or mediator in the catalytic, electro-catalytic and photocatalytic conversion of bicarbonate
to formate selectively. Details of the reaction mechanism pertaining to the overall catalytic
process are discussed.
Keywords: Ruthenium(III) complex, bicarbonate, reduction, catalysis, electro-catalysis, photo-catalysis, formate.
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