Astrocytes: From the Physiology to the Disease

Author(s): Laura Trujillo-Estrada, Angela Gomez-Arboledas, Stefânia Forner, Alessandra Cadete Martini, Antonia Gutierrez, David Baglietto-Vargas*, Frank M. LaFerla*

Journal Name: Current Alzheimer Research

Volume 16 , Issue 8 , 2019

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Abstract:

Astrocytes are key cells for adequate brain formation and regulation of cerebral blood flow as well as for the maintenance of neuronal metabolism, neurotransmitter synthesis and exocytosis, and synaptic transmission. Many of these functions are intrinsically related to neurodegeneration, allowing refocusing on the role of astrocytes in physiological and neurodegenerative states. Indeed, emerging evidence in the field indicates that abnormalities in the astrocytic function are involved in the pathogenesis of multiple neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s Disease (AD), Parkinson’s Disease (PD), Huntington’s Disease (HD) and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). In the present review, we highlight the physiological role of astrocytes in the CNS, including their communication with other cells in the brain. Furthermore, we discuss exciting findings and novel experimental approaches that elucidate the role of astrocytes in multiple neurological disorders.

Keywords: Astrocytes, neurodegenerative diseases, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, neuroinflammation.

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VOLUME: 16
ISSUE: 8
Year: 2019
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DOI: 10.2174/1567205016666190830110152
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