Exploring the Pharmacognostic Features, Anti-oxidant and Lipid Lowering Potential of Fagopyrum esculentum Moench. Seed

Author(s): Neeraj Panihar*, Neeru Vasudeva, Sunil Sharma, Babu Lal Jangir.

Journal Name: Current Traditional Medicine

Volume 6 , Issue 2 , 2020

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Abstract:

Background: Fagopyrum esculentum Moench. is a herb consumed as food and has medicinal value. It is a rich source of bioactive nutrients which cure and prevent many ailments. Traditionally, it is used to treat hypertension, diabetes, constipation, cancer etc.

Methods and Objective: Present work illustrates morphological, microscopic and physicochemical parameters of Fagopyrum esculentum seeds as per WHO guidelines, in vitro antioxidant activity; assessed by DPPH scavenging method, hydrogen peroxide scavenging assay and β-carotene linoleic acid bleaching method and study of lipid lowering potential of the ethyl acetate and ethanol extract of seeds on normal diet fed Wistar rats.

Results: Morphological studies delineated the triangular shape, dark brown colour, 8 mm length and 6 mm width of the seed. The microscopic examination of the transverse section of seed depicted features like testa or pericarp (seed coat), the endosperm, embryo and sclerenchyma cells. Study of physiochemical parameters exhibited 0.3±0.02% of foreign matter and 1.44±0.51% crude fibre content. Total ash, acid insoluble ash and water soluble ash value were 6.7±1.7%, 1.9±0.23% and 3.9± 0.31% respectively. Alcohol soluble and water soluble extractive value came out to be 65.02± 3.21 mg/g and 12.7±1.24 mg/g respectively. Foaming index was less than 100, swelling index was found to be 0.5±0.01 ml/g. Loss on drying was 4.02±1.27%. Phytochemical screening of ethyl acetate and ethanol extract revealed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, phenolic compounds, phytosterols and flavonoids. Trace amount of heavy metals (arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury) were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Pesticide residue analysis confirmed the presence of nontoxic pesticides like dimethipin, hymexazol, phenothrin-2, methoprene, triadimenol, prohydrojasmon- 1, jasmolin ii, triademinol, jasmolin i, prohydrojasmone i, cyromazine in both the extracts by gc-ms spectrometer. The ethyl acetate and ethanol extract has shown significant in-vitro antioxidant activities demonstrated by the DPPH method (IC50 = 94.37±2.51 and 216.04±4.39 μg/ml respectively), hydrogen peroxide scavenging assay (IC50 = 83.72±3.72 and 193.47±5.05 µg/ml respectively) and β-carotene bleaching method (IC50 = 100.67±4.01 and 205.39±2.89 µg/ml respectively). Lipid lowering study performed on Wistar rats demonstrated a significant (p<0.001) decrease in serum Total Cholesterol (TC), Triglyceride (TG) and increase in High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) level as compared to normal group. Both the extracts have shown a non significant difference in the level of TG as compared to standard drug atorvastatin, depicting that the efficacy of extracts is at par with that of standard drug atorvastatin.

Conclusion: Pharmacognostical study of the plant can be a very good tool for identification as well as authentication of a herb. Moreover, these parameters may be helpful in the development of monograph of the plant. Pharmacological activity confirmed Fagopyrum esculentum Moench. seed to be a good antioxidant and have lipid lowering potential.

Keywords: Antioxidant, Fagopyrum esculentum Moench., heavy metal content, lipid lowering activity microscopy, pharmacognostical studies, pesticide residue.

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VOLUME: 6
ISSUE: 2
Year: 2020
Page: [155 - 169]
Pages: 15
DOI: 10.2174/2215083805666190807105935
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