Ecotoxicology of Heavy Metals in Marine Fish
Pp. 173-230 (58)
Lizhao Chen, Sen Du, Dongdong Song, Peng Zhang and Li Zhang
Heavy metal pollution in the marine environment has been realized and
developed to an important environmental problem since the 1950’s. In the polluted
areas, marine organisms are exposed to high level of heavy metals via different routes,
accumulate them in the body, and may have harmful effects from molecular level to
population level. Heavy metals in marine fish have been taken much attention due to
human consumption and health. Marine fish accumulate heavy metals depending on the
concentration and species of metals in water and food, and trophic level, ionic
physiology, feeding habits (carnivorous, herbivorous or omnivorous), habitats
(demersal, pelagic, or bento-pelagic), growing of fish, and other factors. Consequently,
the concentrations of heavy metals in marine fish vary considerably among species and
different sites, which can be well explained by the biokinetic model. High levels of
heavy metals in marine fish can induce various acute and chronic toxic effects,
including behavioral changes, organ pathological changes, biochemical and
physiological changes, hematological changes, and so on. Heavy metal-contaminated
fish consumption will pose threats to organisms at higher trophic level and humans.
Here, we review the occurrence and chemistry of heavy metals in the marine
environment, bioaccumulation, and toxicity of heavy metals in marine fish, and the
general risk assessment of heavy metal in fish to human health.
Heavy Metals, Bioaccumulation, Toxicology, Risk Assessment
Guandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Applied Marine Biology, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, China.