Background: Bisphenol A (BPA) is one of the highest volume chemicals produced
worldwide. It has recognized activity as an endocrine-disrupting chemical and has suspected roles
as a neurological and reproductive toxicant. It interferes in steroid signaling, induces oxidative
stress, and affects gene expression epigenetically. Gestational, perinatal and neonatal exposures to
BPA affect developmental processes, including brain development and gametogenesis, with consequences
on brain functions, behavior, and fertility.
Methods: This review critically analyzes recent findings on the neuro-toxic and reproductive effects
of BPA (and its analogues), with focus on neuronal differentiation, synaptic plasticity, glia and
microglia activity, cognitive functions, and the central and local control of reproduction.
Results: BPA has potential human health hazard associated with gestational, peri- and neonatal
exposure. Beginning with BPA’s disposition, this review summarizes recent findings on the neurotoxicity
of BPA and its analogues, on neuronal differentiation, synaptic plasticity, neuroinflammation,
neuro-degeneration, and impairment of cognitive abilities. Furthermore, it reports the
recent findings on the activity of BPA along the HPG axis, effects on the hypothalamic Gonadotropin
Releasing Hormone (GnRH), and the associated effects on reproduction in both sexes and successful
Conclusion: BPA and its analogues impair neuronal activity, HPG axis function, reproduction, and
fertility. Contrasting results have emerged in animal models and human. Thus, further studies are
needed to better define their safety levels. This review offers new insights on these issues with the
aim to find the “fil rouge”, if any, that characterize BPA’s mechanism of action with outcomes on
neuronal function and reproduction.