Markers Assessment in Triphala (Batch-I, II & III) and its Ingredients from Different Geographical Locations of India through TPC, TFC, HPLC & HPTLC

Author(s): Arjun Singh, Himanshu Sharma*, Bhavana Srivastava, Ravindra Singh

Journal Name: Current Traditional Medicine

Volume 6 , Issue 2 , 2020

Become EABM
Become Reviewer

Graphical Abstract:


Background: Relations among markers, quality assessment and standardization of classical preparations like Triphala an Ayurvedic potent formulation are necessary for the selectivity as well as acceptability of genuine plant drugs and formulation.

Objective: Qualitative and quantitative evaluations of three batches of in-house Triphala along with its ingredients collected from three different locations of India with respect to assess the six active markers.

Methods: Phytochemical studies, spectrophotometric estimations (TPC & TFC), chromatographic (HPLC & HPTLC) methods were developed for the identification and quantification of active markers in Triphala.

Results: Chemical analysis and HPTLC profiles with respect of gallic acid at Rf 0.35 of methanol extracts showed the presence of almost similar phytochemicals in three batches. The highest HPLC peak % area for corrilagin, 1,3,6-Trigalloyl-beta-D-glucose, ellagic acid and chebulinic acid was calculated to be 3.753, 5.27, 24.55 and 29.47, respectively with a majority of markers i.e. four observed in batch-III. The percentage amount of TPC at λ max 720 for batch-III of Phyllanthus emblica L., Terminalia bellirica Roxb., Terminalia chebula Retz. and Triphala was 393.1, 374.81, 628 & 644.5 mg of TAE/g dry weight equivalent, respectively. Similarly, TFC at λ max 510 for the same batch and ingredients was calculated to be 60.27, 40.043, 74.84 and 59.21 QUE/g dry weight equivalent, which were also observed to be maximum in batch-III.

Conclusion: Batch-III of Triphala is of the highest quality and up to pharmacopoeial standards (API). It may be used to predict the quality and efficacy of various commercial formulations of Triphala. These outcomes may be utilized in pharmaceuticals for routine batch standardization and quality control.

Keywords: Triphala, HPTLC, HPLC, Total phenolics and flavanoids, Marker, Ayurvedic.

World Health Organization (WHO). Quality Control Methods for Medicinal Plants Materials. In: Geneva. 1998; pp. 1-15.
Bhutani KK. Finger-printing of ayurvedic drugs. Eastern Pharmacist 2000; 63: 21-6.
The Ayurvedic Formulary of India (AFI) 2003.
The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (API). Part I 1st Ed. New Delhi, India: Government of India, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Department of Indian System of Medicine and Homeopathy. 2004; Vol. IV: 159-60.
Mukherje PK, Rai S, Bhattacharyya S, et al. Clinical study of ‘Triphala’ - A well-known phytomedicine from India. Iranian J Pharmacol Therapeut 2006; 5: 51-4.
Srikumar R, Jeya Parthasarathy N, Sheela Devi R. Immunomodulatory activity of triphala on neutrophil functions. Biol Pharm Bull 2005; 28(8): 1398-403.
[] [PMID: 16079482]
Joshi B, Hendrickx S, Magar LB, Parajuli N, Dorny P, Maes L. In vitro antileishmanial and antimalarial activity of selected plants of Nepal. J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2016; 5(4): 383-9.
[] [PMID: 27757268]
Ravi Shankara BE, Ramachandra YL, Rajan SS, et al. Evaluating the anticancer potential of ethanolic gall extract of Terminalia chebula (Gaertn.) Retz. (Combretaceae). Pharmacol Res 2016; 8(3): 209-12.
[] [PMID: 27365992]
Pokuri VK, Kumar CU, Pingali U. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study to evaluate analgesic activity of Terminalia chebula in healthy human volunteers using a mechanical pain model. J Anaesthesiol Clin Pharmacol 2016; 32(3): 329-32.
[] [PMID: 27625480]
Afshari AR, Sadeghnia HR, Mollazadeh H. A review on potential mechanisms of Terminalia chebula in Alzheimer’s disease. Adv Pharmacol Sci 2016.
Kim YJ. Antimelanogenic and antioxidant properties of gallic acid. Biol Pharm Bull 2007; 30(6): 1052-5.
[] [PMID: 17541153]
Cheng JT, Lin TC, Hsu FL. Antihypertensive effect of corilagin in the rat. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 1995; 73(10): 1425-9.
[] [PMID: 8748933]
Mishra V, Agrawal M, Onasanwo SA, et al. Anti-secretory and cyto-protective effects of chebulinic acid isolated from the fruits of Terminalia chebula on gastric ulcers. Phytomedicine 2013; 20(6): 506-11.
[] [PMID: 23462212]
Patwardhan B, Vaidya AD. Natural products drug discovery: Accelerating the clinical candidate development using reverse pharmacology approaches. Indian J Exp Biol 2010; 48(3): 220-7.
[PMID: 21046974]
Sharma S, Gupta M, Bhadauria R. Quality evaluation of commercially available Triphala powder: A renown dietary supplement of Indian system of medicines. Qual Assur Saf Crops Foods 2014; 7(5): 599-611.
Jain V, Vyas A, Saraf S, Densitometric TLC. TLC Densitometric Method for the Estimation of Piperine in Ayurvedic FormulationTrikatu Churna RJPT 2014; (2): 230-3.
Jain V, Swarnlata S, Saraf S. Standardization of Triphala Churna: Spectrophotometric Approach. Asian J Chem 2007; 19(2): 1406-10.
Milind S, Rajani M. Quantification of ellagic acid, gallic acid and picroside-I from Phalatrikadi kvatha churna by HPTLC Bagul. JNR 2006; 6(1): 53-61.
Jayajothi E, Elavarasu T, Hamsaveni M, Sridhar SK. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of triphala churna. Nat Prod Sci 2004; 10(1): 16-9.
Singh DP, Govindarajan R, Rawat AKS. High-performance liquid chromatography as a tool for the chemical standardisation of Triphala -An ayurvedic formulation. Phytochem Anal 2008; 19(2): 164-8.
[] [PMID: 17879225]
Pawar V, Lahorkar P, Narayana ADB. Development and validation of improved RP-HPLC method for identification and estimation of ellagic and gallic acid in triphala churna. Int J Chemtech Res 2009; 2(3): 1486-93.
Patel M, Patel V, Patel R, Patel KS. Development and validation of improved RP-HPLC method for identification and estimation of ellagic and gallic acid in triphala churna. Int J Chemtech Res 2010; 2(3): 1486-93.
Ganesan B, Perumal P, Manickam V, et al. Quantitative estimation of gallic acid in triphala churnam tablet by RP-HPLC. Der Pharma Chem 2010; 2(3): 19-24.
Mahajan DA, Pai RN. Simultaneous determination of eight phytoconstituents in triphala churna by HPLC–DAD. Res J Pharmacog Phytochem 2011; 3(2): 62-6.
Avula B, Wang YH, Wang M, Shen YH, Khan IA. Simultaneous determination and characterization of tannins and triterpene saponins from the fruits of various species of Terminalia and Phyllantus emblica using a UHPLC-UV-MS method: Application to triphala. Planta Med 2013; 79(2): 181-8.
[] [PMID: 23299756]
Charoenchai L, Pathompak P, Madaka F, Settharaksa S, Saingam W. HPLC-MS profiles and quantitative analysis of triphala formulation. BHST 2016; 14: 57-67.
Mukherjee PK. Quality Control of Herbal Drugs. In: Business Horizons Pharmaceutical Phublishers. New Delhi . 2005; p. 741.
Pattanaya P, Jena RK, Panda SK. HPTLC fingerprinting in the standardization of sulaharan yoga: An ayurvedic tablet formulation. Int J Pharm Sci Rev Res 2010; 3(2): 33-6.
Zhang Z, Liang Y, Xie P, Chau F, Chan K. Chromatographic fingerprinting and chemometrictechniques for quality control of herb medicines. Poon J, Poon SK, (Eds), Data Analytics for Traditional Chinese Medicine Research Gewerbestrasse: Springer.. 2014; 133-53.
Harborne JB. Phytochemical Methods, A Guide To Modern Techniques of Plant Analysis In: Champman and Hall. London. 1998.
Kokate CK. Practical Pharmacognosy. In: Vallabh Prakashan. 4th ed. Delhi. 1997; pp. 107-1.
Singleton VL, Rossi JA. Colorimetry of total phenolics with phosphomolybdic phosphotungstic acid reagents. Am J Enol Vitic 1965; 16: 144-58.
Zhishen J, Mengcheng T, Jianming W. The determination of flavonoid contents in mulberry and their scavenging effects on superoxide radicals. Food Chem 1999; 64(4): 555-9.
Sethi PD. In:High performance thin layer chromatography Student. 1st ed. New Delhi, India: CBS Publishers and Distributers 1996; Vol. X.
Stahl I. Thin layer chromatography, A laboratory hand book. In: Springer Verlag. Berlin. 1969.
Wagner H, Bladt S. Plant drug analysis a thin layer chromatography. In: Springer Verlag. Atlas, New York . 1996.
Mukherjee PK, Bahadur S, Chaudhary SK, Kar A, Mukherjee K. Quality related safety Issue-evidence -based validation of herbal medicine farm to pharma in evidence based validation of herbal medicine. In: USA: Elsevier Science Netherlands. 2015.

Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as

Article Details

Year: 2020
Page: [106 - 120]
Pages: 15
DOI: 10.2174/2215083805666190725125251
Price: $25

Article Metrics

PDF: 11