MicroRNAs [miRNAs] are short, non-coding, single stranded RNA molecules
regulating gene expression of their targets at the posttranscriptional level by either
degrading mRNA or by inhibiting translation. Previously, miRNAs have been reported to
be present inside the mitochondria and these miRNAs have been termed as mito-miRs.
Origin of these mito-miRs may either be from mitochondrial genome or import from
nucleus. The second class of mito-miRs makes it important to unravel the involvement of
miRNAs in crosstalk between nucleus and mitochondria. Since miRNAs are involved in
various physiological processes, their deregulation is often associated with disease
progression, including cancer. The current review focuses on the involvement of
miRNAs in different mitochondrial mediated processes. It also highlights the importance
of exploring the interaction of miRNAs with mitochondrial genome, which may lead to the
development of small regulatory RNA based therapeutic options.