The Anthelmintic Effect on Strongyloides venezuelensis Induced by BnSP- 6, a Lys49-phospholipase A2 Homologue from Bothrops pauloensis Venom

Author(s): Jéssica Peixoto Rodrigues*, Fernanda Van Petten Vasconcelos Azevedo, Mariana Alves Pereira Zoia, Larissa Prado Maia, Lucas Ian Veloso Correia, Julia Maria Costa-Cruz, Veridiana de Melo Rodrigues, Luiz Ricardo Goulart*.

Journal Name: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry

Volume 19 , Issue 22 , 2019

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Abstract:

Background: Phospholipases A2 (PLA2) from snake venoms have a broad potential as pharmacological tools on medicine. In this context, strongyloidiasis is a neglected parasitic disease caused by helminths of the genus Strongyloides. Currently, ivermectin is the drug of choice for treatment, however, besides its notable toxicity, therapeutic failures and cases of drug resistance have been reported. BnSP-6, from Bothorps pauloensis snake venom, is a PLA2 with depth biochemical characterization, reporting effects against tumor cells and bacteria.

Objective: The aim of this study is to demonstrate for the first time the action of the PLA2 on Strongyloides venezuelensis.

Methods: After 72 hours of treatment with BnSP-6 mortality of the infective larvae was assessed by motility assay. Cell and parasite viability was evaluated by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Furthermore, autophagic vacuoles were labeled with Monodansylcadaverine (MDC) and nuclei of apoptotic cells were labeled with Propidium Iodide (PI). Tissue degeneration of the parasite was highlighted by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM).

Results: The mortality index demonstrated that BnSP-6 abolishes the motility of the parasite. In addition, the MTT assay attested the cytotoxicity of BnSP-6 at lower concentrations when compared with ivermectin, while autophagic and apoptosis processes were confirmed. Moreover, the anthelmintic effect was demonstrated by tissue degeneration observed by TEM. Furthermore, we report that BnSP-6 showed low cytotoxicity on human intestinal cells (Caco-2).

Conclusion: Altogether, our results shed light on the potential of BNSP-6 as an anthelmintic agent, which can lead to further investigations as a tool for pharmaceutical discoveries.

Keywords: Strongyloidiasis, S. venezuelensis, BnSP-6, Phospholipases A2, Snake venom, Treatment.

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VOLUME: 19
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Year: 2019
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