Background: Germin-like Proteins (GLPs) play an important role in various stresses.
Rice contains 43 GLPs, among which many remain functionally unexplored. The computational
analysis will provide significant insight into their function.
Objective: To find various structural properties, functional importance, phylogeny and expression
pattern of all OsGLPs using various bioinformatics tools.
Methods: Physiochemical properties, sub-cellular localization, domain composition, Nglycosylation
and Phosphorylation sites, and 3D structural models of the OsGLPs were predicted
using various bioinformatics tools. Functional analysis was carried out with the Search Tool for
the Retrieval of Interacting Genes/Proteins (STRING) and Blast2GO servers. The expression
profile of the OsGLPs was predicted by retrieving the data for expression values from tissuespecific
and hormonal stressed array libraries of RiceXPro. Their phylogenetic relationship was
computed using Molecular and Evolutionary Genetic Analysis (MEGA6) tool.
Results: Most of the OsGLPs are stable in the cellular environment with a prominent expression in
the extracellular region (57%) and plasma membrane (33%). Besides, 3 basic cupin domains, 7
more were reported, among which NTTNKVGSNVTLINV, FLLAALLALASWQAI, and
MASSSF were common to 99% of the sequences, related to bacterial pathogenicity, peroxidase
activity, and peptide signal activity, respectively. Structurally, OsGLPs are similar but functionally
they are diverse with novel enzymatic activities of oxalate decarboxylase, lyase, peroxidase, and
oxidoreductase. Expression analysis revealed prominent activities in the root, endosperm, and
leaves. OsGLPs were strongly expressed by abscisic acid, auxin, gibberellin, cytokinin, and
brassinosteroid. Phylogenetically they showed polyphyletic origin with a narrow genetic
background of 0.05%. OsGLPs of chromosome 3, 8, and 12 are functionally more important due to
their defensive role against various stresses through co-expression strategy.
Conclusion: The analysis will help to utilize OsGLPs in future food programs.