Determination of Free Fatty Acid Composition in Jatropha Crude Oil and Suitability as Biodiesel Feedstock

Author(s): Ravindra Verma*, Dinesh K. Sharma, Prakash S. Bisen

Journal Name: Current Alternative Energy

Volume 3 , Issue 1 , 2019

Become EABM
Become Reviewer
Call for Editor

Graphical Abstract:


Background: Jatropha curcas is one of the most suitable plants the seeds of which are non-edible in nature but rich in oil. Around 350 oil bearing crops are found suitable as potential alternative fuels for diesel engine. Non-edible crop Jatropha curcas has been identified by many experts for biodiesel production in many countries like India.

Objective: The objective of this study is to find out the composition of Jatropha curcas oil and its relation with engine parameters. This research covers selected aspects of physical and chemical relation of fatty acid composition of Jatropha curcas oil and its fuel properties.

Methods: A gas-chromatograph with high resolution mass spectrometer was used to determine the free fatty acid composition of the Jatropha curcas oil sample. The column length, diameter and thickness were 30m, 0.25mm and 0.25μm, respectively. Helium gas was used as carrier gas, column flow of 1.80 mL/min for the GC.

Results: The major fatty acids found in Jatropha curcas crude oil were the oleic (3.81%), linoleic (50%), and palmitic fatty (35.66%) acid. Some physical and chemical characteristics have been evaluated and found suitable for the application in engine. Oxidation stability, oxidizability and cetane number were calculated as 4.949, 1.076 and 55.856, respectively.

Conclusion: The physical and chemical properties of Jatropha crude oil are similar to the biodiesel except the viscosity; therefore, further processing is required. The fuel properties of Jatropha Curcas oil based biodiesel were found to be within the limits of American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) specifications for biodiesel and diesel fuel.

Keywords: Cetane number, free fatty acid, iodine number, Jatropha curcas crude oil, oxidation stability, triglyceride.

K. Mollenhauer, and K. Schreiner, History and fundamental principles of the diesel engine.In: Handbook of Diesel Engines.. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer 2010, pp. 3-30.,
P.S. Bisen, B.S. Sanodiya, G.S. Thakur, R.K. Baghel, and G.B.K.S. Prasad, "Biodiesel production with special emphasis on lipase-catalyzed transesterification", Biotechnol. Lett., vol. 32, pp. 1019-1030, 2010.
C.E. Goering, A.W. Schwab, M.J. Daugherty, E.H. Pryde, and A.J. Heakin, "Fuel properties of eleven vegetable oils", Trans. ASAE, vol. 25, pp. 1472-1477, 1982.
R.W. Pryor, M.A. Hanna, J.L. Schinstock, and L.L. Bashford, "Soybean oil fuel in a small diesel engine", Trans. ASAE, vol. 26, pp. 333-0337, 1983.
S. Pinzi, D. Leiva, I. López-García, M.D. Redel-Macías, and M.P. Dorado, "Latest trends in feedstocks for biodiesel production", Biofuels Bioprod. Biorefin., vol. 8, pp. 126-143, 2014.
M. Debnath, and P.S. Bisen, "Jatropha curcas L., a multipurpose stress resistant plant with a potential for ethnomedicine and renewable energy", Curr. Pharm. Biotechnol., vol. 9, pp. 288-306, 2008.
A. Abuhabaya, J. Fieldhouse, and D. Brown, "The effects of using biodiesel on CI (compression ignition) engine and optimization of its production by using response surface methodology", Energy, vol. 59, pp. 56-62, 2013.
M. Mofijur, M. Rasul, N.M.S. Hassan, and M.N. Uddin, "Investigation of exhaust emissions from a stationary diesel engine fuelled with biodiesel", Energy Procedia, vol. 160, pp. 791-797, 2019.
M.M. Azam, A. Waris, and N.M. Nahar, "Prospects and potential of fatty acid methyl esters of some non-traditional seed oils for use as biodiesel in India", Biomass Bioenergy, vol. 29, pp. 293-302, 2005.
N.F.C. Gonzßles, "International experiences with the cultivation of Jatropha curcas for biodiesel production", Energy, vol. 112, pp. 1245-1258, 2016.
E.T. Akintayo, "Characteristics and composition of Parkia biglobbossa and Jatropha curcas oils and cakes", Bioresour. Technol., vol. 92, pp. 307-310, 2004.
G.D.P.S. Augustus, M. Jayabalan, and G.J. Seiler, "Evaluation and bioinduction of energy components of Jatropha curcas", Biomass Bioenergy, vol. 23, pp. 161-164, 2002.
K. Ashwani, and S. Sharma, "An evaluation of multipurpose oil seed crop for industrial uses (Jatropha curcas L.): A review", Ind. Crops Prod., vol. 28, pp. 1-10, 2008.
M.M. Rahman, H.H. Masjuki, M.A. Kalam, A.E. Atabani, L.A. Memon, and S.M. Ashrafur-Rahman, "Performance and emission analysis of Jatropha curcas and Moringa oleifera methyl ester fuel blends in a multi-cylinder diesel engine", J. Clean. Prod., vol. 65, pp. 304-310, 2014.
W.N.M.W. Ghazali, R. Mamat, H.H. Masjuki, and G. Najafi, "Effects of biodiesel from different feedstocks on engine performance and emissions: A review", Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev., vol. 51, pp. 585-602, 2015.
T. Sunil, N. Indrawan, and P.R. Bhoi, "An overview on fuel properties and prospects of Jatropha biodiesel as fuel for engines", Environmental Technology & Innovation, vol. 9, pp. 210-219, 2018.
Y. Meena, S. Upadhyay, and Y.C. Sharma, "Process optimization, kinetics of production Jatropha curcus methyl ester, and its utilization in single cylinder diesel engine", Energy Convers. Manage., vol. 160, pp. 364-374, 2018.
G. Kothe, M.O. Bagby, and T.W. Ryan, "Precombustion of fatty acids and esters of biodiesel. A possible explanation for differing cetane numbers", Energy Convers. Manage., vol. 75, pp. 1007-1013, 1988.
B. Divya, and V.K. Tyagi, "Biodiesel: source, production, composition, properties and its benefits", J. Oleo Sci., vol. 55, pp. 487-502, 2006.
K. Gerhard, "Dependence of biodiesel fuel properties on the structure of fatty acid alkyl esters", Fuel Process. Technol., vol. 86, pp. 1059-1070, 2005.
J-Y. Park, D-K. Kim, J-P. Lee, S-C. Park, Y-J. Kim, and J-S. Lee, "Blending effects of biodiesels on oxidation stability and low temperature flow properties", Bioresour. Technol., vol. 99, pp. 1196-1203, 2008.
M.J. Ramos, C.M. Fernández, A. Casas, L. Rodríguez, and Á. Pérez, "Influence of fatty acid composition of raw materials on biodiesel properties", Bioresour. Technol., vol. 100, pp. 261-268, 2009.
G. Knothe, "Improving biodiesel fuel properties by modifying fatty ester composition", Energy Environ. Sci., vol. 2, pp. 759-766, 2009.
G. Anand, and P. Kuchhal, "Experimental and theoretical investigation of viscosity, density and sound velocity of Jatropha diesel and pure diesel blends", Biofuels, vol. 9, pp. 1-6, 2018.
P. Hellier, N. Ladommatos, and T. Yusaf, "The influence of straight vegetable oil fatty acid composition on compression ignition combustion and emissions", Fuel, vol. 143, pp. 131-143, 2015.
G. Knothe, "Analyzing biodiesel: standards and other methods", J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., vol. 83, pp. 823-833, 2006.
M.J. Ramos, C.M. Fernández, A. Casas, L. Rodríguez, and A. Pérez, "Influence of fatty acid composition of raw materials on biodiesel properties", Bioresour. Technol., vol. 100, pp. 261-268, 2009.
E. Akbar, Z. Yaakob, S.K. Kamarudin, M. Ismail, and J. Salimon, "Characteristic and composition of Jatropha curcas oil seed from Malaysia and its potential as biodiesel feedstock feedstock", Eur. J. Sci. Res., vol. 29, pp. 396-403, 2009.
H.J. Berchmans, and S. Hirata, "Biodiesel production from crude Jatropha curcas L. seed oil with a high content of free fatty acids", Bioresour. Technol., vol. 99, pp. 1716-1721, 2008.
A.A. Okullo, A.K. Temu, P. Ogwok, and J.W. Ntalikwa, "Physico-chemical properties of biodiesel from Jatropha and castor oils", Int. J. Renew. Energy Res., vol. 2, pp. 47-52, 2012.
A.K. Tiwari, A. Kumar, and H. Raheman, "Biodiesel production from Jatropha oil (Jatropha curcas) with high free fatty acids: An optimized process", Biomass Bioenergy, vol. 31, pp. 569-575, 2007.
R. Verma, and P.S. Bisen, Gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy based detection of lipid profile in Jatropha crude oil and its potential as biodiesel feedstock., Mendeley Data, 2019.
X. Shi, and S. Goto, "Harmonizing biodiesel fuel standards in East Asia: Motivations, progress and challenges", Appl. Energy, vol. 105, pp. 217-222, 2013.
X. Shi, Y. Yu, H. He, S. Shuai, J. Wang, and R. Li, "Emission characteristics using methyl soyate–ethanol–diesel fuel blends on a diesel engine", Fuel, vol. 84, pp. 1543-1549, 2005.
E.N. Frankel, "Volatile lipid oxidation products", Prog. Lipid Res., vol. 22, pp. 1-33, 1983.
D. Berthiaume, and A. Tremblay, Study of the Rancimat test method in measuring the oxidation stability of biodiesel ester and blends.OLEOTEK Inc. Report, NRCan Project No. CO414 CETC-327., 2006
Z. Ilham, and S. Saka, "Two-step supercritical dimethyl carbonate method for biodiesel production from Jatropha curcas oil", Bioresour. Technol., vol. 101, pp. 2735-2740, 2010.
A. Suresh, N. Shah, M. Kotecha, and P. Robin, "Effect of natural, accelerated and saturated salt accelerated aging on the Jatropha curcas L. seeds in optimizing the yield of seed oil as feedstock for biodiesel", Energ. Source. Part A, vol. 41, pp. 990-1004, 2019.
G. Karavalakis, S. Stournas, and D. Karonis, "Evaluation of the oxidation stability of diesel/biodiesel blends", Fuel, vol. 89, pp. 2483-2489, 2010.
E.G. Giakoumis, "Analysis of 22 vegetable oils’ physico-chemical properties and fatty acid composition on a statistical basis, and correlation with the degree of unsaturation", Renew. Energy, vol. 126, pp. 403-419, 2018.
S.M.R. Miraboutalebi, P. Kazemi, and P. Bahrami, "Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) composition used for estimation of biodiesel cetane number employing random forest and artificial neural networks: A new approach", Fuel, vol. 166, pp. 143-151, 2016.
L. Zhu, C.S. Cheung, and Z. Huang, "Impact of chemical structure of individual fatty acid esters on combustion and emission characteristics of diesel engine", Energy, vol. 107, pp. 305-320, 2016.
G. Knothe, A.C. Matheaus, and T.W. Ryan, "Cetane numbers of branched and straight-chain fatty esters determined in an ignition quality tester", Fuel, vol. 82, pp. 971-975, 2003.
"O.C.Chukwuezie, K.N. Nwaigwe, S.N. Asoegwu, and E.E. Anyanwu, “Diesel engine performance of Jatropha biodiesel: A review", Biofuels, vol. 5, pp. 415-430, 2014.
G. Ospina, "M.Y.E. Selim, S.A.B. Al-Omari, M.I.H. Ali, A.M.M. Hussien, “Engine roughness and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine fueled with three biofuels", Renew. Energy, vol. 134, pp. 1465-1472, 2019.
G. Knothe, "Structure indices in FA chemistry. How relevant is the iodine value?", J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., vol. 79, pp. 847-854, 2002.
M. Soleimanifar, R. Niazmand, and S.M. Jafari, "Evaluation of oxidative stability, fatty acid profile, and antioxidant properties of black cumin seed oil and extract", J. Food Meas. Charact., vol. 13, pp. 383-389, 2019.
P. Prasad, S. Savyasachi, and L.P.A. Reddy, "Physico-chemical Characterization, profiling of total lipids and triacylglycerol molecular species of Omega-3 fatty acid rich B. arvensis seed oil from India", J. Oleo Sci., vol. 68, pp. 209-223, 2019.
G. Knothe, "Some aspects of biodiesel oxidative stability", Fuel Process. Technol., vol. 88, pp. 669-677, 2007.
M. Mittelbach, "Diesel fuel derived from vegetable oils, VI: Specifications and quality control of biodiesel", Bioresour. Technol., vol. 56, pp. 7-11, 1996.
N.B. Kyriakidis, and T. Katsiloulis, "Calculation of iodine value from measurements of fatty acid methyl esters of some oils: comparison with the relevant American oil chemists society method", J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., vol. 77, pp. 1235-1238, 2000.
M.A. Islam, R.J. Brown, P.M. Brooks, M.I. Jahirul, H. Bockhorn, and K. Heimann, "Investigation of the effects of the fatty acid profile on fuel properties using a multi-criteria decision analysis", Energy Convers. Manage., vol. 98, pp. 340-347, 2015.
J.G.M. Herbert, and A.U. Krishnan, "Quantifying environmental performance of biomass energy", Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev., vol. 59, pp. 292-308, 2016.
T.M.Y. Khan, I.A. Badruddin, A. Badarudin, N.R. Banapurmath, N.J.S. Ahmed, G.A. Quadir, A.A.A.A. Al-Rashed, H.M.T. Khaleed, and S. Kamangar, "Effects of engine variables and heat transfer on the performance of biodiesel fueled IC engines", Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev., vol. 44, pp. 682-691, 2015.
G. Hagenow, K. Reders, H.E. Heinze, W. Steiger, D. Zigan, and D. Mooser, "Fuels", In: Handbook of Diesel Engines.K. Mollenhauer, H. Tschöke, Ed. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg,, pp. 77-125, 2010
E. Sadeghinezhad, S.N. Kazi, F. Sadeghinejad, A. Badarudin, M. Mehrali, R. Sadri, and M.R. Safaei, "A comprehensive literature review of bio-fuel performance in internal combustion engine and relevant costs involvement", Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev., vol. 30, pp. 29-44, 2014.
S. Nettles-Anderson, D.B. Olsen, J.J. Johnson, and J.N. Enjalbert, "Performance of a direct injection of IC engine on SVO and biodiesel from multiple feedstocks", Journal of Power and Energy Engineering, vol. 2, p. 1, 2014.
W.M. Achten, L. Verchot, Y.J. Franken, E. Mathijs, V.P. Singh, R. Aerts, and B. Muys, "Jatropha bio-diesel production and use", Biomass Bioenergy, vol. 32, pp. 1063-1084, 2008.
C. Adams, J.F. Peters, M.C. Rand, B.J. Schroer, and M.C. Ziemke, "Investigation of soybean oil as a diesel fuel extender: Endurance tests", J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., vol. 60, pp. 1574-1579, 1983.
N. Hemmerlein, V. Korte, H. Richter, and G. Schröder, "Performance, exhaust emissions and durability of modern diesel engines running on rapeseed oil", SAE Trans., pp. 400-415, 1991.
S. Bari, T.H. Lim, and C.W. Yu, "Effects of preheating of Crude Palm Oil (CPO) on injection system, performance and emission of a diesel engine", Renew. Energy, vol. 27, pp. 339-351, 2002.
M.S. Reddy, N. Sharma, and A.K. Agarwal, "Effect of straight vegetable oil blends and biodiesel blends on wear of mechanical fuel injection equipment of a constant speed diesel engine", Renew. Energy, vol. 99, pp. 1008-1018, 2016.
S.C. Mat, M.Y. Idroasa, M.F. Hamid, and Z.A. Zainal, "Performance and emissions of straight vegetable oils and its blends as a fuel in diesel engine: A review", Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev., vol. 82, pp. 808-823, 2018.
S.M. Reddy, N. Sharma, N. Gupta, and A.K. Agarwal, "Effect of non-edible oil and its biodiesel on wear of fuel injection equipment components of a genset engine", Fuel, vol. 222, pp. 841-851, 2018.
A.T. Hoang, and V.V. Pham, "Impact of jatropha oil on engine performance, emission characteristics, deposit formation, and lubricating oil degradation", Combust. Sci. Technol., vol. 191, pp. 504-519, 2019.
S.L. Nettles-Anderson, and D.B. Olsen, Survey of straight vegetable oil composition impact on combustion properties.SAE Technical Paper, (No. 2009-01-0487), 2009
G. Dwivedi, S. Jain, and M.P. Sharma, "Impact analysis of biodiesel on engine performance-A review", Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev., vol. 15, pp. 4633-4641, 2011.
A.K. Agarwal, "Biofuels (alcohols and biodiesel) applications as fuels for internal combustion engines", Pror. Energy Combust. Sci., vol. 33, pp. 233-271, 2007.
N.R. Banapurmath, and P.G. Tewari, "Comparative performance studies of a 4-stroke CI engine operated on dual fuel mode with producer gas and Honge oil and its methyl ester (HOME) with and without carburetor", Renew. Energy, vol. 34, pp. 1009-1015, 2009.
T.T. Kywe, and M.M. Oo, "Production of biodiesel from Jatropha oil (Jatropha curcas) in pilot plant", In: Proceedings of World Academy of Science.Engineering and Technology, . vol. 38, 2009, pp. 481-487.

open access plus

Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as

Article Details

Year: 2019
Published on: 28 November, 2019
Page: [59 - 64]
Pages: 6
DOI: 10.2174/2405463103666190722163037

Article Metrics

PDF: 17
PRC: 1