Background: Several studies have suggested a potential association between low vitamin D serum
levels and several pathological conditions apart from the well-known bone disorders. Thus, vitamin D insufficiency
has been linked to cardiometabolic risk factors including obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension, dyslipidemia,
as well as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.
Objective: This review intends to provide an overview of recent evidence from clinical studies on vitamin D [25-
hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D)] and cardiometabolic risk factors in overweight adults. Furthermore, we also discussed
potential mechanisms and limits of the retrieved results.
Methods: The search process was based on the selection of publications (RCT) listed in PubMed and Cochrane
Results: Vitamin D status evidenced an inversely strong association with subcutaneous adipose tissue and visceral
adiposity, but not significantly related to other bodyweight measures (i.e., body mass index). Studies have
shown a potential inverse association of hypovitaminosis D with insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk factors.
Conclusion: The mechanisms by which vitamin D deficiency enhances adiposity, as well as putative association
with metabolic syndrome features, remain still unclear. Further investigation would be required to conclude
whether vitamin D has an independent role in preventing cardiometabolic disorders.