Background: Previous studies have shown that intake of polyphenols through the consumption of
vegetables and fruits reduces the risk of Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) by potentially influencing endothelial cell
Objective: In this review, the effects and molecular mechanisms of plant polyphenols, particularly resveratrol,
epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), and quercetin, on endothelial functions, and their putative protective effects
against CVD are described.
Methods: Epidemiologic studies examined the effect of the CVD risk of vegetables and the fruit. Furthermore,
studies within vitro models investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms of the action of the flavonoid class
of polyphenols. These findings help elucidate the effect of polyphenols on endothelial function and CVD risk
Results: Epidemiologic and in vitro studies have demonstrated that the consumption of vegetables and fruits
decreases the incidence of CVDs. Furthermore, it has also been indicated that dietary polyphenols are inversely
related to the risk of CVD. Resveratrol, EGCG, and quercetin prevent oxidative stress by regulating the expression
of oxidase and the antioxidant enzyme genes, contributing to the prevention of stroke, hypertension, heart
failure, and ischemic heart disease.
Conclusion: High intake of dietary polyphenols may help prevent CVD. Polyphenols inhibit endothelial dysfunction
and induce vascular endothelium-dependent vascular relaxation viz. redox regulation and nitric oxide production.
The polyphenol-induced healthy endothelial cell function may be related to CVD prevention.