Background: Vitamin D is involved in the physiological functions of several tissues, however, its
deficiency may contribute to the development of various disorders. Recent research has been focusing on the role
of vitamin D in the pathogenesis of endometriosis based on the evidence of the presence of vitamin D receptor
and the enzymes required for vitamin D synthesis in the ectopic endometrium. Endometriosis, defined as the
presence of endometrial glands and stroma in ectopic locations, is considered an estrogen-dependent disease and
Vitamin D seems to have a role in modulation of the inflammatory state and proliferation of endometriotic cells.
Objective: This study aimed to review the available literature regarding the relationship between vitamin D and
endometriosis as well as the effects of vitamin D supplementation.
Methods: A search on PubMed database has been performed.
Results: The relationship between endometriosis and Vitamin D has been analyzed through the evaluation of
vitamin D serum level, the polymorphism of vitamin D receptor and the role of vitamin D-binding protein in
patient with endometriosis. The possible role of Vitamin D in the endometriosis therapy has also been investigated,
in particular, the effect of vitamin D on pain relief, on endometriotic lesion in vitro and in rat models and in
addition to a future target immunotherapy.
Conclusion: Although promising, the data analyzed are not sufficient to evidence a cause-effect relationship
between VD status and endometriosis, therefore further studies are needed in order to better clarify the association
between vitamin D and endometriosis, especially in the context of the possibility of new treatment options.