Background: Liquid C8-C15 long-chain alkanes, as the main components of jet fuels or
diesel, can be synthetized from abundant and renewable biomass derivatives by extending the carbon-
chain length through cascade C-C coupling over acidic catalysts and hydrodeoxygenation over
Objective: This research aims to develop a carbon-increasing catalytic process through the dimerization
of 5-methylfurfuryl alcohol to produce the C11 oxygenate bis(5-methylfuran-2-yl) methane.
Methods: In this work, 5-methylfurfural, derivable from sugars, could be reduced to the expensive 5-
methylfurfuryl alcohol over Cs2CO3 using an eco-friendly hydride polymethylhydrosiloxane. In the
subsequent carbon-increasing process, a solid acidic nanocatalyst 3-chlorpyridine phosphotungstic
acid (3-ClPYPW) was developed to be efficient for the conversion of 5-methylfurfuryl alcohol to
bis(5-methylfuran-2-yl) methane under mild reaction conditions.
Results: A good bis(5-methylfuran-2-yl) methane yield of 51.6% was obtained using dichloromethane
as a solvent at a low temperature of 70°C in 11 h. The solid nanocatalyst was able to be
reused for at least four cycles without a remarkable loss of catalytic activity. The kinetic study
proved that the reaction is a first-order reaction with apparent activation energy (Ea) of 41.10 kJ
mol-1, while the thermodynamic study certified that the reaction is non-spontaneous and endothermic.
Conclusion: A novel catalytic pathway for the synthesis of BMFM (C11 oxygenate) by the one-pot
process was successfully developed over solid acidic nanocatalysts 3-ClPYPW.