Adenosine is a purine nucleoside which is an effective controller of inflammation. The inflammatory
effect of adenosine is expressed via its four receptor subtypes viz. A1, A2A, A2B and A3. The various inflammatory
conditions including rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are initiated by adenosine receptors of which A2A and A3 play a
vital role. RA primarily is an auto-immune disorder which is manifested as chronic inflammation in the synovial
lining of joints. In order to develop an effective treatment, the role of cytokines, IL–1, TNF-α and IL–6 is crucial.
Besides, the knowledge of PI3K-PKB/Akt and NF-kB signaling pathway is also important to understand the antiinflammatory
targets. Methotrexate along with various other molecules like, NSAIDs and DMARDs are presently
used as treatment lines for controlling RA. The enhanced knowledge of the preclinical stages and pathogenesis
along with recent potent therapeutics raises the hopes that RA can be prevented in the near future.