Carica papaya: Potential Implications in Human Health

Author(s): Dave Heena*, Trivedi Sunil

Journal Name: Current Traditional Medicine

Volume 5 , Issue 4 , 2019

Become EABM
Become Reviewer
Call for Editor

Graphical Abstract:


Background: Carica papaya, a tree-like herb, is cultivated in more than 50 tropical and subtropical countries worldwide. The parts [leaves, fruit (ripe and unripe), seeds and latex] are used as food as well as traditional medicine in several ways for a number of diseases. Papaya, with a variety of phytochemicals like carotenoids, polyphenols, benzyl isothiocynates, benzyl glucosinates, prunasin (cyanogenic substrate), papain and chymopapain, alkaloids, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, vitamins (A, C, E), carotenoids, cyanogenicglucosides, cystatin, and glucosinolates exhibits significant health benefits ranging from digestive to immune modulation. These compounds have antioxidant, chemoprotective, anti-diabetic, anti-bacterial, anti-plasmodial and anti-fungal activities. Papaya aqueous leaf extract was evaluated for immunomodulatory and anti-tumor activities through cytokine modulation with Th1 type shift in human immune system through molecular studies. The platelet augmenting potential of aqueous leaf extract has been reported in numerous clinical studies and deserves special mention.

Objective: The scientific knowledge of carica papaya in the post-genomic era including molecular studies and clinical trials is discussed in the review.

Methods: The published literature on botany, chemical composition, ethnopharmacology, and uses of papaya in food and medical industry was searched through databases like Pub- Med, Scopus, and Google scholar to comprehend the benefits of Carica papaya for human use with around more than 600 published peer- reviewed papers.

Results: Many traditional and novel uses of Carica papaya for the human benefit are detailed in the review that significantly adds to the scientific knowledge of curious readers.

Conclusion: Each component of the papaya plant is rich in phytochemicals and is economically important. Most of the phytochemicals are linked to biological functions and influence a variety of cellular processes; hence they have implications in refining human health.

Keywords: Carica papaya, phytochemicals, anti-plasmodial, human immune system, anti-diabetic, chemoprotective.

The archives of the rare fruit council of Australia; Origin of papaya. Accessed on: http://rfcarchives.
The Biology of Carica papaya L, Version 2: February 2008 Office of the Gene Technology Regulator, Department of Health and Ageing, Australian Government
Food and Resource Economics Department. Department, UF/IFAS Extension an Overview of US Papaya Production, Trade, and Consumption Document FE914: Original publication date August 2012 Reviewed August 2015 Available from: 2015.
Papayas, production quantity (tons) - for all countries
Ming R, Hou S, Feng Y, et al. The draft genome of the transgenic tropical fruit tree papaya (Carica papaya Linnaeus). Nature 2008; 452(7190): 991-6.
[] [PMID: 18432245]
Nwofia GE, Ojimelukwe P, Eji C. Chemical composition of leaves, fruit pulp and seeds in some Carica papaya (L) morphotypes. Int J Arom Plants 2012; 2: 200-6.
Krishna KL, Paridhavi M, Patel JA. Review on nutritional, medicinal and pharmacological properties of papaya (Carica papaya Linn). Nat Prod Radiance 2008; 7: 364-73.
Bruneton J. Carica papaya. Pharmacognosy, phytochemistry of medicinal plants 2nd ed. 1999; 221-3.
The wealth of India-A Dictionary Indian raw materials and industrial products: Raw materials series, revised edition Vol.3, Ca-Ci, Publications and Information. Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi 1992; 276-93.
Indian Materia Medica by K M nadkarni, 1st edition, by A K Nadkarni, Popular Prakashan Pvt Ltd, Bombay 1954; 273-7.
Ayoola PB, Adeyeye A. Phytochemical and nutrient evaluation of caracal papaya (pawpaw) leaves. IJRRAS 2010; 5: 325-8.
Adachukwu I, Ann O, Faith E. Phytochemical analysis of paw-paw (Carical papaya) leaves. Int J LifeScBt& Pharm Res 2013; 2: 347-51.
Vyas SJ, Khatri TT, Ram VR, Dave PN. Biochemical constituents in leaf of Carica papaya – Ethnomedical plant of Kachchh region. Int Lett Nat Sci 2014; 7: 16-20.
Yanty NA, Marikkar JM, Nusantoro BP, Long K, Ghazali HM. Physico-chemical characteristics of papaya (Carica papaya L.) seed oil of the Hong Kong/Sekaki variety. J Oleo Sci 2014; 63(9): 885-92.
[] [PMID: 25174674]
Samaram S, Mirhosseini H, Tan CP, Ghazali HM. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction (UAE) and solvent extraction of papaya seed oil: Yield, fatty acid composition and triacylglycerol profile. Molecules 2013; 18(10): 12474-87.
[] [PMID: 24152670]
Sharma VC, Ogbeide ON. Pawpaw as a renewable energy resource for the production of alcohol fuels. Energy 1982; 7(10): 871-3.
Flath RA, Forrey RR. Volatile components of papaya (Carica papaya L., Solo variety). J Agric Food Chem 1977; 25(1): 103-9.
Ching LS, Mohamed S. Alpha-tocopherol content in 62 edible tropical plants. J Agric Food Chem 2001; 49(6): 3101-5.
[] [PMID: 11410015]
Schweiggert RM, Kopec RE, Villalobos-Gutierrez MG, et al. Carotenoids are more bioavailable from papaya than from tomato and carrot in humans: A randomized cross-over study. Br J Nutr 2014; 111(3): 490-8.
[] [PMID: 23931131]
Christell B. Detection of a papaya cysteine proteinase inhibitor under different environmental condition 1999.
Gogna N, Hamid N, Dorai K. Metabolomic profiling of the phytomedicinal constituents of Carica papaya L. leaves and seeds by 1H NMR spectroscopy and multivariate statistical analysis. J Pharm Biomed Anal 2015; 115: 74-85.
[] [PMID: 26163870]
Upgade A, Bhaskar A. Characterization and medical importance of phytoconstituents of C. papaya from down south Indian region using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2013; 6(Suppl. 4): 101-6.
Abdelkafi S, Abousalham A, Fendri I, et al. Identification of a new phospholipase D in Carica papaya latex. Gene 2012; 499(2): 243-9.
[] [PMID: 22450361]
Thao NTT, Shaw PN. ParatMarie-Odile, and Amitha K. Hewavitharana AK: Anticancer activity of Carica papaya: A review. Mol Nutr Food Res 2013; 57: 153-64.
Otsuki N, Dang NH, Kumagai E, Kondo A, Iwata S, Morimoto C. Aqueous extract of Carica papaya leaves exhibits anti-tumor activity and immunomodulatory effects. J Ethnopharmacol 2010; 127(3): 760-7.
[] [PMID: 19961915]
Hewitt H, Whittle S, Lopez S, Bailey E, Weaver S. Topical use of papaya in chronic skin ulcer therapy in Jamaica. West Indian Med J 2000; 49(1): 32-3.
[PMID: 10786448]
Lim T. Edible Medicinal and Non-Medicinal Plants: Volume1, Fruits, Springer Science+Business Media, NewYork 2012; 693-717.
Lucas TP. The Most Wonderful Tree in the World, the papaw tree (Carica papaia). Carter-Watson, Brisbane 192.
Amenta R, Camarda L, Di Stefano V, Lentini F, Venza F. Traditional medicine as a source of new therapeutic agents against psoriasis. Fitoterapia 2000; 71(Suppl. 1): S13-20.
[] [PMID: 10930708]
Marotta F, Catanzaro R, Yadav H, et al. Functional foods in genomic medicine: A review of fermented papaya preparation research progress. Acta Biomed 2012; 83(1): 21-9.
[PMID: 22978054]
Fujita Y, Tsuno H, Nakayama J. Fermented papaya preparation restores age-related reductions in peripheral. Blood mononuclear cell cytolytic activity in tube-fed patients. PLoS One 2017; 12: 1-18.
Clement YN, Mahase V, Jagroop A, et al. Herbal remedies and functional foods used by cancer patients attending specialty oncology clinics in Trinidad. BMC Complement Altern Med 2016; 16(1): 399.
[] [PMID: 27769229]
Somanah J, Aruoma OI, Gunness TK, et al. Effects of a short term supplementation of a fermented papaya preparation on biomarkers of diabetes mellitus in a randomized Mauritian population. Prev Med 2012; 54(Suppl.): S90-7.
[] [PMID: 22330753]
Aruoma OI, Somanah J, Bourdon E, Rondeau P, Bahorun T. Diabetes as a risk factor to cancer: Functional role of fermented papaya preparation as phytonutraceutical adjunct in the treatment of diabetes and cancer. Mutat Res 2014; 768: 60-8.
[] [PMID: 24769427]
Somanah J, Bourdon E, Rondeau P, Bahorun T, Aruoma OI. Relationship between fermented papaya preparation supplementation, erythrocyte integrity and antioxidant status in pre-diabetics. Food Chem Toxicol 2014; 65: 12-7.
[] [PMID: 24316314]
Danese C, Esposito D, D’Alfonso V, Cirene M, Ambrosino M, Colotto M. Plasma glucose level decreases as collateral effect of fermented papaya preparation use. Clin Ter 2006; 157(3): 195-8.
[PMID: 16900843]
Collard E, Roy S. Improved function of diabetic wound-site macrophages and accelerated wound closure in response to oral supplementation of a fermented papaya preparation. Antioxid Redox Signal 2010; 13(5): 599-606.
[] [PMID: 20095880]
Marotta F, Weksler M, Naito Y, Yoshida C, Yoshioka M, Marandola P. Nutraceutical supplementation: Effect of a fermented papaya preparation on redox status and DNA damage in healthy elderly individuals and relationship with GSTM1 genotype: A randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2006; 1067: 400-7.
[] [PMID: 16804018]
Marotta F, Chui DH, Jain S, et al. Effect of a fermented nutraceutical on thioredoxin level and TNF-alpha signalling in cirrhotic patients. J Biol Regul Homeost Agents 2011; 25(1): 37-45.
[PMID: 21382272]
Marotta F, Yoshida C, Barreto R, Naito Y, Packer L. Oxidative-inflammatory damage in cirrhosis: Effect of vitamin E and a fermented papaya preparation. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2007; 22(5): 697-703.
[] [PMID: 17444858]
Fibach E, Rachmilewitz EA. The Effect of fermented papaya preparation on radioactive exposure. Radiat Res 2015; 184(3): 304-13.
[] [PMID: 26291738]
Murakami S, Eikawa S, Kaya S, Imao M, Aji T. Antitumor and immunoregulatory effects of fermented papaya preparation (FPP: SAIDOPS501). Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2016; 17(7): 3077-84.
[PMID: 27509932]
Singhal A, Reis ED, Kerstein MD. Options for nonsurgical debridement of necrotic wounds. Adv Skin Wound Care 2001; 14(2): 96-100.
[] [PMID: 11899913]
Hewitt H, Wint Y, Talabere L, et al. The use of papaya on pressure ulcers. Am J Nurs 2002; 102(12): 73-7.
[] [PMID: 12473933]
Balaji A, Jaganathan SK, Ismail AF, Rajasekar R. Fabrication and hemocompatibility assessment of novel polyurethane-based bio-nanofibrous dressing loaded with honey and Carica papaya extract for the management of burn injuries. Int J Nanomedicine 2016; 11: 4339-55.
[] [PMID: 27621626]
Gurung S, Skalko-Basnet N. Wound healing properties of Carica papaya latex: In vivo evaluation in mice burn model. J Ethnopharmacol 2009; 121(2): 338-41.
[] [PMID: 19041705]
Nafiu AB, Rahman MT. Selenium added unripe carica papaya pulp extracts enhance wound repair through TGF-β1 and VEGF-a signalling pathway. BMC Complement Altern Med 2015; 15: 369.
[] [PMID: 26471293]
Nayak SB, Pinto PL, Maharaj D. Wound healing activity of Carica papaya L. in experimentally induced diabetic rats. Indian J Exp Biol 2007; 45(8): 739-43.
[PMID: 17877152]
Starley IF, Mohammed P, Schneider G, Bickler SW. The treatment of paediatric burns using topical papaya. Burns 1999; 25(7): 636-9.
[] [PMID: 10563690]
The natural way. A tropical contraceptive. Asiaweek 1994; 12. No authors listed
[PMID: 12288101]
Verma RJ, Nambiar D, Chinoy NJ. Toxicological effects of Carica papaya seed extract on spermatozoa of mice. J Appl Toxicol 2006; 26(6): 533-5.
[] [PMID: 17080407]
Lohiya NK, Manivannan B, Garg S. Toxicological investigations on the methanol sub-fraction of the seeds of Carica papaya as a male contraceptive in albino rats. Reprod Toxicol 2006; 22(3): 461-8.
[] [PMID: 16515854]
Pathak N, Mishra PK, Manivannan B, Lohiya NK. Sterility due to inhibition of sperm motility by oral administration of benzene chromatographic fraction of the chloroform extract of the seeds of Carica papaya in rats. Phytomedicine 2000; 7(4): 325-33.
[] [PMID: 10969727]
Pathak N, Mishra PK, Manivannan B, Lohiya NK. Prospects of developing a plant based male contraceptive pill Current Status in fertility regulation: indigenous and modern approaches central Lucknow 2001; 99-119.
Udoh P, Essien I, Udoh F. Effects of Carica papaya (paw paw) seeds extract on the morphology of pituitary-gonadal axis of male Wistar rats. Phytother Res 2005; 19(12): 1065-8.
[] [PMID: 16372375]
Garg SK, Garg GP. Antifertility screening of plants. VII. Effect of five indigenous plants on early pregnancy in albino rats. Indian J Med Res 1971; 59(2): 302-6.
[PMID: 5579247]
Bodhankar SL, Garg SK, Mathur VS. Antifertility screening of plants. Part IX. Effect of five indigenous plants on early pregnancy in female albino rats. Indian J Med Res 1974; 62(6): 831-7.
[PMID: 4435895]
Lohiya NK, Manivannan B, Mishra PK, Pathak N. Prospects of developing a plant based male contraceptive pill Current status in fertility regulation: Indigenous & modern approaches 2001; 99-119.
Lohiya NK, Goyal RB, Jayaprakash D, Ansari AS, Srivastava S, Singh P. Antifertility effects of Carica papaya seeds in male rats. Current concepts in fertility regulation and reproduction 1994; 177-92.
Pathak N, Mishra PK, Manivannan B, Lohiya NK. Sterility due to inhibition of sperm motility by oral administration of benzene chromatographic fraction of the chloroform extract of the seeds of Carica papaya in rats. Phytomedicine 2000; 7(4): 325-33.
[] [PMID: 10969727]
Lohiya NK, Manivannan B, Mishra PK, et al. Chloroform extract of Carica papaya seeds induces long-term reversible azoospermia in langur monkey. Asian J Androl 2002; 4(1): 17-26.
[PMID: 11907624]
Gauci C, Jayashi C, Lightowlers MW. Vaccine development against the Taenia solium parasite: The role of recombinant protein expression in Escherichia coli. Bioengineered 2013; 4(5): 343-7.
[] [PMID: 23196744]
Fragoso G, Hernández M, Cervantes-Torres J, et al. Transgenic papaya: A useful platform for oral vaccines. Planta 2017; 245(5): 1037-48.
[] [PMID: 28194565]
Malek K, Norazan M, Ramaness P, et al. Cysteine proteases from Carica papaya: An important enzyme group of many industrial applications. IOSR J Pharm Bio Sci 2016; 11: 11-6.
Behnke JM, Buttle DJ, Stepek G, Lowe A, Duce IR. Developing novel anthelmintics from plant cysteine proteinases. Parasit Vectors 2008; 1(1): 29.
[] [PMID: 18761736]
Phiri AM, Pomerai DI, Buttle DJ. Behnke JM. A novel assay for the detection of anthelmintic activity mediated by cuticular damage to nematodes: Validation on caenorhabditiselegans exposed to cysteine proteinases. Parasitology 2017; 144: 583-93.
[] [PMID: 28134060]
Sripanidkulchai B, Wongpanich V, Laupattarakasem P, Suwansaksri J, Jirakulsomchok D. Diuretic effects of selected Thai indigenous medicinal plants in rats. J Ethnopharmacol 2001; 75(2-3): 185-90.
[] [PMID: 11297849]
Eno AE, Owo OI, Itam EH, Konya RS. Blood pressure depression by the fruit juice of Carica papaya (L.) in renal and DOCA-induced hypertension in the rat. Phytother Res 2000; 14(4): 235-9.
[<235:AID-PTR574>3.0.CO;2-G] [PMID: 10861964]
Banerjee A, Vaghasiya R, Shrivastava N, Podn H, Nivsarkas M. Anti-hyperlipidemicaffect of Carica papaya L. in Sprague dawley rats. Niger J Nat Prod Med 2006; 10: 69-72.
OseniLateef A, Quasie Olga, Antwi Stephen, Tandoh Mavis. A comparative evaluation of in vivo antiplasmodial activity of aqueous leaf exracts of Carica papaya, Azadirachtaindica, Magniferaindica and the combination thereof using plasmodium infected BALB/c mice. Int J Appl Biol Pharm Technol 2012; 3: 372-8.
Onaku LO, Attama AA, Okore VC, Tijani AY, Ngene AA, Esimone CO. Antagonistic antimalarial properties of pawpaw leaf aqueous extract in combination with artesunic acid in plasmodium berghei-infected mice. J Vector Borne Dis 2011; 48(2): 96-100.
[PMID: 21715732]
Kovendan K, Murugan K, Panneerselvam C, et al. Antimalarial activity of Carica papaya (Family: Caricaceae) leaf extract against plasmodium falciparum. Asian Pac J Trop Dis 2012; S306-11.
He X, Ma Y, Yi G, Wu J, Zhou L, Guo H. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of Carica papaya Linn. seed essential oil against Candida spp. Lett Appl Microbiol 2017; 64(5): 350-4.
[] [PMID: 28052349]
Baskaran C, Rathabai V, Velu S, Kubendiran KK. The efficacy of Carica papaya leaf extract on some bacterial and a fungal strain by well diffusion method. Asian Pac J Trop Dis 2012; S658-62.
Yusha’u M, Onuorah FC, Murtala Y. In-Vitro sensitivity pattern of some urinary tract isolates to Carica papaya extracts. Bayero J Pure Appl Sci 2009; 2: 75-8.
Sarala N, Paknikar S. Papaya extract to treat dengue: A novel therapeutic option? Ann Med Health Sci Res 2014; 4(3): 320-4.
[] [PMID: 24971201]
Patil S, Shetty S, Bhide R, Narayanan S. Evaluation of platelet augmentation activity of Carica papaya leaf aqueous extract in rats. J PharmacognPhytochem 2013; 1: 57-60.
Dharmarathna SLCA, Wickramasinghe S, Waduge RN, Rajapakse RPVJ, Kularatne SAMK. Does Carica papaya leaf-extract increase the platelet count? An experimental study in a murine model. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2013; 3(9): 720-4.
[] [PMID: 23998013]
Hettige S. Salutary effects of Carica papaya leaf extract in dengue fever patients a pilot study. Sri Lankan Fam Physician 2008; 29: 17.
Kumar N. Rapid response entitled: Papaya leaves for speedy rise of platelet count in dengue. Response to: Gibbons RV,Vaughn DW. Dengue: An escalating problem. BMJ 1563-1566; 2002: 324. [Accessed on May 14, 2017
Kala CP. Leaf juice of Carica papaya L. A remedy of dengue fever. Med Aromat Plants 2012; 1: 109.
Subenthiran S, Choon TC, Cheong KC, Thayan R, Teck MB, Muniandy PK. Carica papaya leaves juice significantly accelerates the rate of increase in platelet count among patients with dengue fever and dengue haemorrhagic fever. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2013; 7.
Ahmad N, Fazal H, Ayaz M, Abbasi BH, Mohammad I, Fazal L. Dengue fever treatment with Carica papaya leaves extracts. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2011; 1(4): 330-3.
[] [PMID: 23569787]
Yunita F, Hanani E. The effect of Carica papaya L leaves extract capsule on platelet count and hematocrit level in dengue fever patient. Int J Med Aromat Plants 2012; 2: 573.
Senthilvel P, Lavanya P, Kumar KM, et al. Flavonoid from Carica papaya inhibits NS2B-NS3 protease and prevents Dengue 2 viral assembly. Bioinformation 2013; 9(18): 889-95.
[] [PMID: 24307765]
Charan J, Saxena D, Goyal JP, Yasobant S. Efficacy and safety of Carica papaya leaf extract in the dengue: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Appl Basic Med Res 2016; 6(4): 249-54.
[] [PMID: 27857891]
Gadhwal AK, Ankit BS, Chahar C, Tantia P, Sirohi P, Agrawal RP. Effect of Carica papaya leaf extract capsule on platelet count in patients of dengue fever with thrombocytopenia. J Assoc Physicians India 2016; 64(6): 22-6.
[PMID: 27739263]
Kasture PN, Nagabhushan KH, Kumar A. A multi-centric, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, prospective study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Carica papaya leaf extract, as empirical therapy for thrombocytopenia associated with dengue fever. J Assoc Physicians India 2016; 64(6): 15-20.
[PMID: 27739262]
Pangtey GS, Prakash A, Munjal YP. Role of Carica papaya leaf extract for dengue associated thrombocytopenia. J Assoc Physicians India 2016; 64(6): 11-3.
[PMID: 27739261]
Elisa P, Majdi D, Stefania M. Administration dependent antioxidant effect of Carica papaya seeds water extract. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2014; 13.
Sagnia B, Fedeli D, Casetti R, Montesano C, Falcioni G, Colizzi V. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of extracts from Cassia alata, Eleusine indica, Eremomastax speciosa, Carica papaya and Polyscias fulva medicinal plants collected in Cameroon. PLoS One 2014; 9(8)e103999
[] [PMID: 25090613]
Prus E, Fibach E. The antioxidant effect of fermented papaya preparation involves iron chelation. J Biol Regul Homeost Agents 2012; 26(2): 203-10.
[PMID: 22824747]
Juárez-Rojop IE, Díaz-Zagoya JC, Ble-Castillo JL, et al. Hypoglycemic effect of Carica papaya leaves in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. BMC Complement Altern Med 2012; 12: 236.
[] [PMID: 23190471]
Maniyar Y, Bhixavatimath P. Antihyperglycemic and hypolipidemic activities of aqueous extract of Carica papaya Linn. leaves in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. J Ayurveda Integr Med 2012; 3(2): 70-4.
[] [PMID: 22707862]
Sahu J, Sen P, Choudhury MD, et al. Rediscovering medicinal plants’ potential with OMICS: Microsatellite survey in expressed sequence tags of eleven traditional plants with potent antidiabetic properties. OMICS 2014; 18(5): 298-309.
[] [PMID: 24802971]
Nurain IO, Bewaji CO, Johnson JS, Davenport RD, Zhang Y. Potential of three ethnomedicinal plants as antisickling agents. Mol Pharm 2017; 14(1): 172-82.
[] [PMID: 28043127]
Okoko T, Ere D. Reduction of hydrogen peroxide-induced erythrocyte damage by Carica papaya leaf extract. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2012; 2(6): 449-53.
[] [PMID: 23569948]
Imaga NOA, Gbenle GO, Okochi VI, et al. Antisickling property of Carica papaya leaf extract. Afr J Biochem Res 2009; 3: 102-6.
Ranasinghe P, Ranasinghe P, Abeysekera WP, et al. In vitro erythrocyte membrane stabilization properties of Carica papaya L. leaf extracts. Pharmacol Res 2012; 4(4): 196-202.
[] [PMID: 23225962]
Sheikh F, Krishnamurthy R. Papaya (Carica papaya): Source material for anticancer. CIBTech J Pharm Sci 2013; 2: 25-34.
Nguyen TT, Parat MO, Hodson MP, Pan J, Shaw PN, Hewavitharana AK. Chemical characterization and in vitro cytotoxicity on squamous cell carcinoma cells of Carica papaya leaf extracts. Toxins (Basel) 2015; 8(1)E7
[] [PMID: 26712788]
Nguyen TT, Parat MO, Shaw PN, Hewavitharana AK, Hodson MP. Traditional aboriginal preparation alters the chemical profile of Carica papaya leaves and impacts on cytotoxicity towards human squamous cell carcinoma. PLoS One 2016; 11(2)e0147956
[] [PMID: 26829042]
Pathak N, Khan S, Bhargava A, et al. Cancer chemopreventive effects of the flavonoid-rich fraction isolated from papaya seeds. Nutr Cancer 2014; 66(5): 857-71.
[] [PMID: 24820939]

Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as

Article Details

Year: 2019
Published on: 05 July, 2019
Page: [321 - 336]
Pages: 16
DOI: 10.2174/2215083805666190705170022
Price: $25

Article Metrics

PDF: 31