MicroRNAs are RNA molecules of ~22 nt length that regulate gene expression posttranscriptionally.
The role of miRNAs has been reported in many cellular processes including apoptosis,
cell differentiation, development and proliferation. The dysregulated expression of miRNAs
has been proposed as a biomarker for the diagnosis, onset and prognosis of human diseases. The
utility of miRNA profiles to identify and discriminate patients from healthy individuals is highly dependent
on the sensitivity and specificity of the technologies used for their detection and the quantity
and quality of starting material. In this review, we present an update of the current technologies for
the extraction, QC assessment and detection of miRNAs with special focus to the most recent methods,
discussing their advantages as well as their shortcomings.