The eye is a complex organ comprised of several compartments with exclusive and specialized
properties that reflect their diverse functions. Although the prevalence of eye pathologies is
increasing, mainly because of its correlation with aging and of generalized lifestyle changes, the
pathogenic molecular mechanisms of many common ocular diseases remain poorly understood.
Therefore, there is an unmet need to delve into the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment
of eye diseases to preserve ocular health and reduce the incidence of visual impairment or blindness.
Proteomics analysis stands as a valuable tool for deciphering protein profiles related to specific ocular
conditions. In turn, such profiles can lead to real breakthroughs in the fields of ocular science and
ophthalmology. Among proteomics techniques, protein microarray technology stands out by providing
expanded information using very small volumes of samples.
In this review, we present a brief summary of the main types of protein microarrays and their application
for the identification of protein changes in chronic ocular diseases such as dry eye, glaucoma,
age-related macular degeneration, or diabetic retinopathy. The validation of these specific protein
alterations could provide new biomarkers, disclose eye diseases pathways, and help in the diagnosis
and development of novel therapies for eye pathologies.