Reviewing Biochemical Implications of Normal and Mutated Huntingtin in Huntington’s Disease

Author(s): Ester Tellone*, Antonio Galtieri, Silvana Ficarra

Journal Name: Current Medicinal Chemistry

Volume 27 , Issue 31 , 2020


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Abstract:

Huntingtin (Htt) is a multi-function protein of the brain. Normal Htt shows a common alpha-helical structure but conformational changes in the form with beta strands are the principal cause of Huntington’s disease. Huntington’s disease is a genetic neurological disorder caused by a repeated expansion of the CAG trinucleotide, causing instability in the N-terminal of the gene coding for the Huntingtin protein. The mutation leads to the abnormal expansion of the production of the polyglutamine tract (polyQ) resulting in the form of an unstable Huntingtin protein commonly referred to as mutant Huntingtin. Mutant Huntingtin is the cause of the complex neurological metabolic alteration of Huntington’s disease, resulting in both the loss of all the functions of normal Huntingtin and the genesis of abnormal interactions due to the presence of this mutation. One of the problems arising from the misfolded Huntingtin is the increase in oxidative stress, which is common in many neurological diseases such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. In the last few years, the use of antioxidants had a strong incentive to find valid therapies for defence against neurodegenerations. Although further studies are needed, the use of antioxidant mixtures to counteract neuronal damages seems promising.

Keywords: Huntington's disease, Huntingtin, neurodegeneration, misfolding, antioxidants, oxidative stress.

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