Protective Effects of Phenylpropanoids and Phenylpropanoid-rich Essential Oils on the Cardiovascular System

Author(s): Jorge M. Alves-Silva, Mónica Zuzarte*, Carla Marques, Henrique Girão, Lígia Salgueiro

Journal Name: Mini-Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry

Volume 19 , Issue 17 , 2019

Become EABM
Become Reviewer
Call for Editor

Graphical Abstract:


Background: Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of global mortality with a tendency to increase due to population ageing as well as an increase in associated risk factors. Although current therapies improve survival rates, they are associated with several side effects, thus justifying the development of novel preventive and/or therapeutic approaches. In this way, plant metabolites such as essential oils have emerged as promising agents due to their biological effects.

Objective: Bearing in mind that several essential oils are characterized by high amounts of phenylpropanoids, which may play a crucial role in the activity of these volatile extracts, a comprehensive and systematic review focusing on the cardiovascular effects of phenylpropanoid-rich essential oils is presented.

Methods: Popular search engines including PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus and Google Scholar were consulted and papers from 2000 onwards were selected. Non-volatile phenylpropanoids were not considered in this review.

Results: A compilation of the current knowledge on this thematic pointed out beneficial effects for volatile phenylpropanoids namely hypotensive, vasorelaxant, antiplatelet aggregation, antidyslipidaemic and antidiabetic, as well as protective properties against ischemia/reperfusion injury and heart hypertrophy.

Conclusion: A better understanding of the protective effects of phenylpropanoids on the cardiovascular system is presented, thus paving the way towards future research on plant-based therapies for cardiovascular diseases.

Keywords: Essential oil, phenylpropanoids, cardiovascular, risk factors, hypotensive, antidyslipidaemic.

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs).. 2017. (accessed January 14, 2019)
Nichols, M.; Townsend, N.; Scarborough, P.; Rayner, M. Cardiovascular disease in Europe 2014: Epidemiological update. Eur. Heart J., 2014, 35(42), 2950-2959.
[] [PMID: 25139896]
Townsend, N.; Wilson, L.; Bhatnagar, P.; Wickramasinghe, K.; Rayner, M.; Nichols, M. Cardiovascular disease in Europe: Epidemiological update 2016. Eur. Heart J., 2016, 37(42), 3232-3245.
[] [PMID: 27523477]
Harvey, R.E.; Coffman, K.E.; Miller, V.M. Women-specific factors to consider in risk, diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular disease. Womens Health (Lond), 2015, 11(2), 239-257.
[] [PMID: 25776297]
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). . 2017. (accessed January 14, 2019)
Faulx, M.D.; Francis, G.S. Adverse drug reactions in patients with cardiovascular disease. Curr. Probl. Cardiol., 2008, 33(12), 703-768.
[] [PMID: 19000586]
Mendis, S.; Puska, P.; Norrving, B. Global atlas on cardiovascular disease prevention and control; World Health Organization: Geneva, 2011.
Shukla, S.K.; Gupta, S.; Ojha, S.K.; Sharma, S.B. Cardiovascular friendly natural products: A promising approach in the management of CVD. Nat. Prod. Res., 2010, 24(9), 873-898.
[] [PMID: 20461632]
de Andrade, T.U.; Brasil, G.A.; Endringer, D.C.; da Nóbrega, F.R.; de Sousa, D.P. Cardiovascular activity of the chemical constituents of essential oils. Molecules, 2017, 22(9), 1539.
[] [PMID: 28926969]
Waltenberger, B.; Mocan, A.; Šmejkal, K.; Heiss, E.H.; Atanasov, A.G. Natural products to counteract the epidemic of cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. Molecules, 2016, 21(6)
[] [PMID: 27338339]
Pejin, B.; Bianco, A.; Newmaster, S.; Sabovljevic, M.; Vujisic, Lj.; Tesevic, V.; Vajs, V.; De Rosa, S. Fatty acids of Rhodobryum ontariense (Bryaceae). Nat. Prod. Res., 2012, 26(8), 696-702.
[] [PMID: 21895464]
Olofsson, P.; Hultqvist, M.; Holmdahl, R. Phytol as cholesterol lowering agent, WO2009113952. 2009.
Elmazar, M.M.; El-Abhar, H.S.; Schaalan, M.F.; Farag, N.A. Phytol/Phytanic acid and insulin resistance: potential role of phytanic acid proven by docking simulation and modulation of biochemical alterations. PLoS One, 2013, 8(1)e45638
[] [PMID: 23300941]
Buckle, J. Aromatherapy and cardiovascular disease. Complement. Altern. Cardiovasc. Med., 2004, 239-254.
Alves-Silva, J.M.; Monica, Z.; Carla, M.; Lígia, S.; Henrique, G. Protective effects of terpenes on the cardiovascular system: Current advances and future perspectives. Curr. Med. Chem., 2016, 23(40), 1-1.
Alves-Silva, J.M.; Barbeitos, J.; Marques, C.; Salgueiro, L.; Girão, H.; Zuzarte, M. Effects on the cardiovascular system of terpenerich essential oils.Terpen. Biosyn. Appl. Res, 1st ed; , 2018, pp. 123-171.
Council of Europe. European Pharmacopoeia 7th edition , 2010.
Svoboda, K.P.; Svoboda, T.G.; Syred, P.M. Secretory Structures of Aromatic and Medicinal Plants: A Review and Atlas of Micrographs, Microscopix,. 2000. id=mIhFAQAAIAAJ
Vogt, T. Phenylpropanoid biosynthesis. Mol. Plant, 2010, 3, 2-20.
[] [PMID: 20035037]
Hüsnü, K.; Başer, C.; Demirci, F. Chemistry of Essential Oils, in: R.G. Berger (Ed.)Flavours and Fragrances; Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2007, pp. 43-86.
Cheng, S.; Fu, X.; Mei, X.; Zhou, Y.; Du, B.; Watanabe, N.; Yang, Z. Regulation of biosynthesis and emission of volatile phenylpropanoids/benzenoids in Petunia× hybrida flowers by multi-factors of circadian clock, light, and temperature. Plant Physiol. Biochem., 2016, 107, 1-8.
[] [PMID: 27235646]
Bakkali, F.; Averbeck, S.; Averbeck, D.; Idaomar, M. Biological effects of essential oils-a review. Food Chem. Toxicol., 2008, 46(2), 446-475.
[] [PMID: 17996351]
Saljoughian, S.; Roohinejad, S.; Bekhit, A.E.A.; Greiner, R.; Omidizadeh, A.; Nikmaram, N.; Mousavi Khaneghah, A. The effects of food essential oils on cardiovascular diseases: A review. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr., 2018, 58(10), 1688-1705.
[] [PMID: 28678524]
Deng, Y.; Lu, S. Biosynthesis and regulation of phenylpropanoids in Plants. CRC. Crit. Rev. Plant Sci., 2017, 36(4), 257-290.
Seigler, D.S. Phenylpropanoids In: Plant Second. Metab; Springer US, Boston, MA, 1998; pp. 106-129.
Tzin, V.; Galili, G.; Aharoni, A. Shikimate pathway and aromatic amino acid biosynthesis In: eLS,; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2012.
Maeda, H.; Dudareva, N. The shikimate pathway and aromatic amino acid biosynthesis in plants. Annu. Rev. Plant Biol., 2012, 63, 73-105.
[] [PMID: 22554242]
Carvalho, A.A.; Andrade, L.N.; de Sousa, É.B.V.; de Sousa, D.P. Antitumor phenylpropanoids found in essential oils. BioMed Res. Int., 2015. 2015392674
[] [PMID: 25949996]
Interaminense, L.F.L.; Jucá, D.M.; Magalhães, P.J.C.; Leal-Cardoso, J.H.; Duarte, G.P.; Lahlou, S. Pharmacological evidence of calcium-channel blockade by essential oil of Ocimum gratissimum and its main constituent, eugenol, in isolated aortic rings from DOCA-salt hypertensive rats. Fundam. Clin. Pharmacol., 2007, 21(5), 497-506.
[] [PMID: 17868202]
de Almeida, R.R.P.; Souto, R.N.P.; Bastos, C.N.; da Silva, M.H.L.; Maia, J.G.S. Chemical variation in Piper aduncum and biological properties of its dillapiole-rich essential oil. Chem. Biodivers., 2009, 6(9), 1427-1434.
[] [PMID: 19774604]
Vieira, J.N.; Gonçalves, C.L.; Villarreal, J.P.V.; Gonçalves, V.M.; Lund, R.G.; Freitag, R.A.; Silva, A.F.; Nascente, P.S. Chemical composition of essential oils from the Apiaceae family, cytotoxicity, and their antifungal activity in vitro against Candida species from oral cavity. Braz. J. Biol., 2018.
[] [PMID: 30328892]
Lee, M-H.; Chen, Y-Y.; Tsai, J-W.; Wang, S-C.; Watanabe, T.; Tsai, Y-C. Inhibitory effect of β-asarone, a component of Acorus calamus essential oil, on inhibition of adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. Food Chem., 2011, 126(1), 1-7.
Vasconcelos-Silva, A.A.; Lima, F.J.; Brito, T.S.; Lahlou, S.; Magalhães, P.J.C. Vasorelaxation induced by methyl cinnamate, the major constituent of the essential oil of Ocimum micranthum, in rat isolated aorta. Clin. Exp. Pharmacol. Physiol., 2014, 41(10), 755-762.
[] [PMID: 25115734]
Baumgartner, H.; Falk, V.; Bax, J.J.; De Bonis, M.; Hamm, C.; Holm, P.J.; Iung, B.; Lancellotti, P.; Lansac, E.; Rodriguez Muñoz, D.; Rosenhek, R.; Sjögren, J.; Tornos Mas, P.; Vahanian, A.; Walther, T.; Wendler, O.; Windecker, S.; Zamorano, J.L. 2017 ESC/EACTS Guidelines for the management of valvular heart disease. Eur. Heart J., 2017, 38(36), 2739-2791.
[] [PMID: 28886619]
Esposito, K.; Marfella, R.; Ciotola, M.; Di Palo, C.; Giugliano, F.; Giugliano, G.; D’Armiento, M.; D’Andrea, F.; Giugliano, D. Effect of a mediterranean-style diet on endothelial dysfunction and markers of vascular inflammation in the metabolic syndrome: A randomized trial. JAMA, 2004, 292(12), 1440-1446.
[] [PMID: 15383514]
Brugts, J.J.; Yetgin, T.; Hoeks, S.E.; Gotto, A.M.; Shepherd, J.; Westendorp, R.G.J.; de Craen, A.J.M.; Knopp, R.H.; Nakamura, H.; Ridker, P.; van Domburg, R.; Deckers, J.W. The benefits of statins in people without established cardiovascular disease but with cardiovascular risk factors: Meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. BMJ, 2009, 338, b2376.
[] [PMID: 19567909]
Rastogi, S.; Pandey, M.M.; Rawat, A.K.S. Traditional herbs: A remedy for cardiovascular disorders. Phytomedicine, 2016, 23(11), 1082-1089.
[] [PMID: 26656228]
Walden, R.; Tomlinson, B. Cardiovascular Disease, 2nd ed; CRC Press/Taylor & Francis, 2011.
Mancia, G.; Fagard, R.; Narkiewicz, K.; Redon, J.; Zanchetti, A.; Böhm, M.; Christiaens, T.; Cifkova, R.; De Backer, G.; Dominiczak, A.; Galderisi, M.; Grobbee, D.E.; Jaarsma, T.; Kirchhof, P.; Kjeldsen, S.E.; Laurent, S.; Manolis, A.J.; Nilsson, P.M.; Ruilope, L.M.; Schmieder, R.E.; Sirnes, P.A.; Sleight, P.; Viigimaa, M.; Waeber, B.; Zannad, F.; Redon, J.; Dominiczak, A.; Narkiewicz, K.; Nilsson, P.M.; Burnier, M.; Viigimaa, M.; Ambrosioni, E.; Caufield, M.; Coca, A.; Olsen, M.H.; Schmieder, R.E.; Tsioufis, C.; van de Borne, P.; Zamorano, J.L.; Achenbach, S.; Baumgartner, H.; Bax, J.J.; Bueno, H.; Dean, V.; Deaton, C.; Erol, C.; Fagard, R.; Ferrari, R.; Hasdai, D.; Hoes, A.W.; Kirchhof, P.; Knuuti, J.; Kolh, P.; Lancellotti, P.; Linhart, A.; Nihoyannopoulos, P.; Piepoli, M.F.; Ponikowski, P.; Sirnes, P.A.; Tamargo, J.L.; Tendera, M.; Torbicki, A.; Wijns, W.; Windecker, S.; Clement, D.L.; Coca, A.; Gillebert, T.C.; Tendera, M.; Rosei, E.A.; Ambrosioni, E.; Anker, S.D.; Bauersachs, J.; Hitij, J.B.; Caulfield, M.; De Buyzere, M.; De Geest, S.; Derumeaux, G.A.; Erdine, S.; Farsang, C.; Funck-Brentano, C.; Gerc, V.; Germano, G.; Gielen, S.; Haller, H.; Hoes, A.W.; Jordan, J.; Kahan, T.; Komajda, M.; Lovic, D.; Mahrholdt, H.; Olsen, M.H.; Ostergren, J.; Parati, G.; Perk, J.; Polonia, J.; Popescu, B.A.; Reiner, Z.; Rydén, L.; Sirenko, Y.; Stanton, A.; Struijker-Boudier, H.; Tsioufis, C.; van de Borne, P.; Vlachopoulos, C.; Volpe, M.; Wood, D.A. 2013 ESH/ESC Guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension. Eur. Heart J., 2013, 34(28), 2159-2219.
[] [PMID: 23771844]
Trinder, Y. Common and less common adverse effects of antihypertensives: A general practitioner’s perspective. S. Afr. Fam. Pract., 2012, 54(2), S31-S32.
de Siqueira, R.J.B.; Magalhães, P.J.C.; Leal-Cardoso, J.H.; Duarte, G.P.; Lahlou, S. Cardiovascular effects of the essential oil of Croton zehntneri leaves and its main constituents, anethole and estragole, in normotensive conscious rats. Life Sci., 2006, 78(20), 2365-2372.
[] [PMID: 16325210]
de Siqueira, R.; Leal-Cardoso, J.; Couture, R.; Lahlou, S. Role of capsaicin-sensitive sensory nerves in mediation of the cardiovascular effects of the essential oil of Croton zehntneri leaves in anaesthetized rats. Clin. Exp. Pharmacol. Physiol., 2006, 33(3), 238-247.
[] [PMID: 16487268]
de Siqueira, R.J.B.; Duarte, G.P.; Magalhães, P.J.C.; Lahlou, S. Cardiovascular effects of the essential oil of Croton zehntneri leaves in DOCA-salt hypertensive, conscious rats. Nat. Prod. Commun., 2013, 8(8), 1167-1170.
[] [PMID: 24079196]
Interaminense, L.F.L.; Leal-Cardoso, J.H.; Magalhães, P.J.C.; Duarte, G.P.; Lahlou, S. Enhanced hypotensive effects of the essential oil of Ocimum gratissimum leaves and its main constituent, eugenol, in DOCA-salt hypertensive conscious rats. Planta Med., 2005, 71(4), 376-378.
[] [PMID: 15856420]
Lahlou, S. Interaminense, Lde.F.; Leal-Cardoso, J.H.; Morais, S.M.; Duarte, G.P. Cardiovascular effects of the essential oil of Ocimum gratissimum leaves in rats: role of the autonomic nervous system. Clin. Exp. Pharmacol. Physiol., 2004, 31(4), 219-225.
[] [PMID: 15053817]
Lahlou, S.; Interaminense, L.F.; Magalhães, P.J.; Leal-Cardoso, J.H.; Duarte, G.P. Cardiovascular effects of eugenol, a phenolic compound present in many plant essential oils, in normotensive rats. J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol., 2004, 43(2), 250-257.
[] [PMID: 14716213]
Peixoto-Neves, D.; Wang, Q.; Leal-Cardoso, J.H.; Rossoni, L.V.; Jaggar, J.H. Eugenol dilates mesenteric arteries and reduces systemic BP by activating endothelial cell TRPV4 channels. Br. J. Pharmacol., 2015, 172(14), 3484-3494.
[] [PMID: 25832173]
Lahlou, S.; Figueiredo, A.F.; Magalhães, P.J.C.; Leal-Cardoso, J.H. Cardiovascular effects of 1,8-cineole, a terpenoid oxide present in many plant essential oils, in normotensive rats. Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol., 2002, 80(12), 1125-1131.
[] [PMID: 12564637]
Krams, R.; Bäck, M. The ESC Textbook of Vascular Biology; Oxford University Press, 2017.
Tognolini, M.; Ballabeni, V.; Bertoni, S.; Bruni, R.; Impicciatore, M.; Barocelli, E. Protective effect of Foeniculum vulgare essential oil and anethole in an experimental model of thrombosis. Pharmacol. Res., 2007, 56(3), 254-260.
[] [PMID: 17709257]
Pires, A.F.; Madeira, S.V.F.; Soares, P.M.G.; Montenegro, C.M.; Souza, E.P.; Resende, A.C.; Soares de Moura, R.; Assreuy, A.M.S.; Criddle, D.N. The role of endothelium in the vasorelaxant effects of the essential oil of Ocimum gratissimum in aorta and mesenteric vascular bed of rats. Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol., 2012, 90(10), 1380-1385.
[] [PMID: 22716233]
Ballabeni, V.; Tognolini, M.; Bertoni, S.; Bruni, R.; Guerrini, A.; Rueda, G.M.; Barocelli, E. Antiplatelet and antithrombotic activities of essential oil from wild Ocotea quixos (Lam.) Kosterm. (Lauraceae) calices from Amazonian Ecuador. Pharmacol. Res., 2007, 55, 23-30.
[] [PMID: 17079160]
Shabir, H.; Kundu, S.; Basir, S.F.; Khan, L.A. Modulation of Pb(II) caused aortal constriction by eugenol and carvacrol. Biol. Trace Elem. Res., 2014, 161, 116-122.
[] [PMID: 25065667]
Kundu, S.; Shabir, H.; Basir, S.F.; Khan, L.A. Inhibition of As(III) and Hg(II) caused aortic hypercontraction by eugenol, linalool and carvone. J. Smooth Muscle Res., 2014, 50, 93-102.
[] [PMID: 25891766]
Criddle, D.N.; Madeira, S.V.; Soares de Moura, R. Endothelium-dependent and -independent vasodilator effects of eugenol in the rat mesenteric vascular bed. J. Pharm. Pharmacol., 2003, 55(3), 359-365.
[] [PMID: 12724042]
Damiani, C.E.; Moreira, C.M.; Zhang, H.T.; Creazzo, T.L.; Vassallo, D.V. Effects of eugenol, an essential oil, on the mechanical and electrical activities of cardiac muscle. J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol., 2004, 44(6), 688-695.
[] [PMID: 15550789]
Damiani, C.E.N.; Rossoni, L.V.; Vassallo, D.V. Vasorelaxant effects of eugenol on rat thoracic aorta. Vascul. Pharmacol., 2003, 40(1), 59-66.
[] [PMID: 12646411]
Soares, P.M.G.; Lima, R.F.; de Freitas Pires, A.; Souza, E.P.; Assreuy, A.M.S.; Criddle, D.N. Effects of anethole and structural analogues on the contractility of rat isolated aorta: Involvement of voltage-dependent Ca2+-channels. Life Sci., 2007, 81(13), 1085-1093.
[] [PMID: 17869309]
Soares, M.C.M.S.; Damiani, C.E.N.; Moreira, C.M.; Stefanon, I.; Vassallo, D.V. Eucalyptol, an essential oil, reduces contractile activity in rat cardiac muscle. Braz. J. Med. Biol. Res., 2005, 38(3), 453-461.
[] [PMID: 15761626]
Magalhães, P.J.C.; Lahlou, S.; Jucá, D.M.; Coelho-de-Souza, L.N.; da Frota, P.T.T.; da Costa, A.M.G.; Leal-Cardoso, J.H. Vasorelaxation induced by the essential oil of Croton nepetaefolius and its constituents in rat aorta are partially mediated by the endothelium. Fundam. Clin. Pharmacol., 2008, 22(2), 169-177.
[] [PMID: 18353112]
Raffai, G.; Kim, B.; Park, S.; Khang, G.; Lee, D.; Vanhoutte, P.M. Cinnamaldehyde and cinnamaldehyde-containing micelles induce relaxation of isolated porcine coronary arteries: Role of nitric oxide and calcium. Int. J. Nanomedicine, 2014, 9, 2557-2566.
[] [PMID: 24904214]
Yanaga, A.; Goto, H.; Nakagawa, T.; Hikiami, H.; Shibahara, N.; Shimada, Y. Cinnamaldehyde induces endothelium-dependent and -independent vasorelaxant action on isolated rat aorta. Biol. Pharm. Bull., 2006, 29(12), 2415-2418.
[] [PMID: 17142974]
Willoughby, S.; Holmes, A.; Loscalzo, J. Platelets and cardiovascular disease. Eur. J. Cardiovasc. Nurs., 2002, 1(4), 273-288.
[] [PMID: 14622657]
Sangkuhl, K.; Shuldiner, A.R.; Klein, T.E.; Altman, R.B. Platelet aggregation pathway. Pharmacogenet. Genomics, 2011, 21(8), 516-521.
[] [PMID: 20938371]
Tognolini, M.; Barocelli, E.; Ballabeni, V.; Bruni, R.; Bianchi, A.; Chiavarini, M.; Impicciatore, M. Comparative screening of plant essential oils: phenylpropanoid moiety as basic core for antiplatelet activity. Life Sci., 2006, 78(13), 1419-1432.
[] [PMID: 16274702]
Preethy, T.T.; Elsy, C.R.; Beena, C. P-41: Profiling of essential oil in Tirur vettilai (Piper betle L.), a group of unique betel vine land races from Malappuram district, Kerala. J. Pharmacogn. Phytochem., 2017, 6(3), 774-778.
Chang, M.C.; Uang, B.J.; Tsai, C.Y.; Wu, H.L.; Lin, B.R.; Lee, C.S.; Chen, Y.J.; Chang, C.H.; Tsai, Y.L.; Kao, C.J.; Jeng, J.H. Hydroxychavicol, a novel betel leaf component, inhibits platelet aggregation by suppression of cyclooxygenase, thromboxane production and calcium mobilization. Br. J. Pharmacol., 2007, 152, 73-82.
[] [PMID: 17641677]
Reiner, Z.; Catapano, A.L.; De Backer, G.; Graham, I.; Taskinen, M-R.; Wiklund, O.; Agewall, S.; Alegria, E.; Chapman, M.J.; Durrington, P.; Erdine, S.; Halcox, J.; Hobbs, R.; Kjekshus, J.; Filardi, P.P.; Riccardi, G.; Storey, R.F.; Wood, D. ESC/EAS Guidelines for the management of dyslipidaemias: The Task Force for the management of dyslipidaemias of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and the European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS). Eur. Heart J., 2011, 32(14), 1769-1818.
[] [PMID: 21712404]
Racette, S.B.; Lin, X.; Lefevre, M.; Spearie, C.A.; Most, M.M.; Ma, L.; Ostlund, R.E., Jr Dose effects of dietary phytosterols on cholesterol metabolism: a controlled feeding study. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 2010, 91, 32-38.
[] [PMID: 19889819]
Reid, I.R.; Birstow, S.M.; Bolland, M.J. Calcium and cardiovascular disease. Endocrinol. Metab. (Seoul), 2017, 32(3), 339-349.
[] [PMID: 28956363]
Marks, A.R. Calcium and the heart: a question of life and death. J. Clin. Invest., 2003, 111(5), 597-600.
[] [PMID: 12618512]
Rydén, L.; Grant, P.J.; Anker, S.D.; Berne, C.; Cosentino, F.; Danchin, N.; Deaton, C.; Escaned, J.; Hammes, H.P.; Huikuri, H.; Marre, M.; Marx, N.; Mellbin, L.; Ostergren, J.; Patrono, C.; Seferovic, P.; Uva, M.S.; Taskinen, M.R.; Tendera, M.; Tuomilehto, J.; Valensi, P.; Zamorano, J.L.; Zamorano, J.L.; Achenbach, S.; Baumgartner, H.; Bax, J.J.; Bueno, H.; Dean, V.; Deaton, C.; Erol, C.; Fagard, R.; Ferrari, R.; Hasdai, D.; Hoes, A.W.; Kirchhof, P.; Knuuti, J.; Kolh, P.; Lancellotti, P.; Linhart, A.; Nihoyannopoulos, P.; Piepoli, M.F.; Ponikowski, P.; Sirnes, P.A.; Tamargo, J.L.; Tendera, M.; Torbicki, A.; Wijns, W.; Windecker, S.; De Backer, G.; Sirnes, P.A.; Ezquerra, E.A.; Avogaro, A.; Badimon, L.; Baranova, E.; Baumgartner, H.; Betteridge, J.; Ceriello, A.; Fagard, R.; Funck-Brentano, C.; Gulba, D.C.; Hasdai, D.; Hoes, A.W.; Kjekshus, J.K.; Knuuti, J.; Kolh, P.; Lev, E.; Mueller, C.; Neyses, L.; Nilsson, P.M.; Perk, J.; Ponikowski, P.; Reiner, Z.; Sattar, N.; Schächinger, V.; Scheen, A.; Schirmer, H.; Strömberg, A.; Sudzhaeva, S.; Tamargo, J.L.; Viigimaa, M.; Vlachopoulos, C.; Xuereb, R.G. ESC Guidelines on diabetes, pre-diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases developed in collaboration with the EASD: the Task Force on diabetes, pre-diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and developed in collaboration with the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD). Eur. Heart J., 2013, 34(39), 3035-3087.
[] [PMID: 23996285]
Maack, C.; Lehrke, M.; Backs, J.; Heinzel, F.R.; Hulot, J-S.; Marx, N.; Paulus, W.J.; Rossignol, P.; Taegtmeyer, H.; Bauersachs, J.; Bayes-Genis, A.; Brutsaert, D.; Bugger, H.; Clarke, K.; Cosentino, F.; De Keulenaer, G.; Dei Cas, A.; González, A.; Huelsmann, M.; Iaccarino, G.; Lunde, I.G.; Lyon, A.R.; Pollesello, P.; Rena, G.; Riksen, N.P.; Rosano, G.; Staels, B.; van Laake, L.W.; Wanner, C.; Farmakis, D.; Filippatos, G.; Ruschitzka, F.; Seferovic, P.; de Boer, R.A.; Heymans, S. Heart failure and diabetes: metabolic alterations and therapeutic interventions: A state-of-the-art review from the Translational Research Committee of the Heart Failure Association-European Society of Cardiology. Eur. Heart J., 2018, 39(48), 4243-4254.
[] [PMID: 30295797]
Kumar, S.; Vasudeva, N.; Sharma, S. GC-MS analysis and screening of antidiabetic, antioxidant and hypolipidemic potential of Cinnamomum tamala oil in streptozotocin induced diabetes mellitus in rats. Cardiovasc. Diabetol., 2012, 11, 95.
[] [PMID: 22882757]
Al-Okbi, S.Y.; Hussein, A.M.S.; Elbakry, H.F.H.; Fouda, K.A.; Mahmoud, K.F.; Hassan, M.E. Health benefits of fennel, rosemary volatile oils and their nano-forms in dyslipidemic rat model. Pak. J. Biol. Sci., 2018, 21(7), 348-358.
[] [PMID: 30417995]
Al-Okbi, S.Y.; Mohamed, D.A.; Hamed, T.E.; Edris, A.E. Protective effect of clove oil and eugenol microemulsions on fatty liver and dyslipidemia as components of metabolic syndrome. J. Med. Food, 2014, 17(7), 764-771.
[] [PMID: 24611461]
Venkadeswaran, K.; Thomas, P.A.; Geraldine, P. An experimental evaluation of the anti-atherogenic potential of the plant, Piper betle, and its active constitutent, eugenol, in rats fed an atherogenic diet. Biomed. Pharmacother., 2016, 80, 276-288.
[] [PMID: 27133067]
Venkadeswaran, K.; Muralidharan, A.R.; Annadurai, T.; Ruban, V.V.; Sundararajan, M.; Anandhi, R.; Thomas, P.A.; Geraldine, P. Antihypercholesterolemic and antioxidative potential of an extract of the plant, Piper betle, and its active constituent, eugenol, in triton WR-1339-induced hypercholesterolemia in experimental rats. Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med., 2014, 2014478973
[] [PMID: 24523820]
Wang, F.; Pu, C.; Zhou, P.; Wang, P.; Liang, D.; Wang, Q.; Hu, Y.; Li, B.; Hao, X. Cinnamaldehyde prevents endothelial dysfunction induced by high glucose by activating Nrf2. Cell. Physiol. Biochem., 2015, 36, 315-324.
[] [PMID: 25967970]
Chellian, R.; Pandy, V.; Mohamed, Z. Pharmacology and toxicology of α- and β-Asarone: A review of preclinical evidence. Phytomedicine, 2017, 32, 41-58.
[] [PMID: 28732807]
Thakare, M.M.; Surana, S.J. β-Asarone modulate adipokines and attenuates high fat diet-induced metabolic abnormalities in Wistar rats. Pharmacol. Res., 2016, 103, 227-235.
[] [PMID: 26675715]
Popławski, J.; Łozowicka, B.; Dubis, A.T.; Lachowska, B.; Witkowski, S.; Siluk, D.; Petrusewicz, J.; Kaliszan, R.; Cybulski, J.; Strzałkowska, M.; Chilmonczyk, Z. Synthesis and hypolipidemic and antiplatelet activities of α-asarone isomers in humans (in vitro), mice (in vivo), and rats (in vivo). J. Med. Chem., 2000, 43(20), 3671-3676.
[] [PMID: 11020281]
Ibanez, B.; James, S.; Agewall, S.; Antunes, M.J.; Bucciarelli-Ducci, C.; Bueno, H.; Caforio, A.L.P.; Crea, F.; Goudevenos, J.A.; Halvorsen, S.; Hindricks, G.; Kastrati, A.; Lenzen, M.J.; Prescott, E.; Roffi, M.; Valgimigli, M.; Varenhorst, C.; Vranckx, P.; Widimský, P. 2017 ESC Guidelines for the management of acute myocardial infarction in patients presenting with ST-segment elevation: The Task Force for the management of acute myocardial infarction in patients presenting with ST-segment elevation of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). Eur. Heart J., 2018, 39(2), 119-177.
[] [PMID: 28886621]
Mnafgui, K.; Hajji, R.; Derbali, F.; Gammoudi, A.; Khabbabi, G.; Ellefi, H.; Allouche, N.; Kadri, A.; Gharsallah, N. Anti-inflammatory, antithrombotic and cardiac remodeling preventive effects of eugenol in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in wistar rat. Cardiovasc. Toxicol., 2016, 16(4), 336-344.
[] [PMID: 26391896]
Liu, F.; Huang, Z-Z.; Sun, Y-H.; Li, T.; Yang, D-H.; Xu, G.; Su, Y-Y.; Zhang, T. Four main active ingredients derived from a Traditional Chinese medicine Guanxin Shutong capsule cause cardioprotection during myocardial ischemia injury calcium overload suppression. Phytother. Res., 2017, 31(3), 507-515.
[] [PMID: 28164397]
Song, F.; Li, H.; Sun, J.; Wang, S. Protective effects of cinnamic acid and cinnamic aldehyde on isoproterenol-induced acute myocardial ischemia in rats. J. Ethnopharmacol., 2013, 150, 125-130.
[] [PMID: 24001892]
Yang, L.; Wu, Q-Q.; Liu, Y.; Hu, Z-F.; Bian, Z-Y.; Tang, Q-Z. Cinnamaldehyde attenuates pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Int. J. Clin. Exp. Pathol., 2015, 8(11), 14345-14354.
[PMID: 26823750]
Fouad, A.A.; Yacoubi, M.T. Mechanisms underlying the protective effect of eugenol in rats with acute doxorubicin cardiotoxicity. Arch. Pharm. Res., 2011, 34(5), 821-828.
[] [PMID: 21656368]
Magyar, J.; Szentandrássy, N.; Bányász, T.; Fülöp, L.; Varró, A.; Nánási, P.P. Effects of terpenoid phenol derivatives on calcium current in canine and human ventricular cardiomyocytes. Eur. J. Pharmacol., 2004, 487(1-3), 29-36.
[] [PMID: 15033373]
Alvarez-Collazo, J.; Alonso-Carbajo, L.; López-Medina, A.I.; Alpizar, Y.A.; Tajada, S.; Nilius, B.; Voets, T.; López-López, J.R.; Talavera, K.; Pérez-García, M.T.; Alvarez, J.L. Cinnamaldehyde inhibits L-type calcium channels in mouse ventricular cardiomyocytes and vascular smooth muscle cells. Pflugers Arch., 2014, 466(11), 2089-2099.
[] [PMID: 24563220]
Zhao, H.; Zhang, M.; Zhou, F.; Cao, W.; Bi, L.; Xie, Y.; Yang, Q.; Wang, S. Cinnamaldehyde ameliorates LPS-induced cardiac dysfunction via TLR4-NOX4 pathway: The regulation of autophagy and ROS production. J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol., 2016, 101, 11-24.
[] [PMID: 27838370]
Shi, H-X.; Yang, J.; Yang, T.; Xue, Y-L.; Liu, J.; Li, Y-J.; Zhang, D-D.; Xu, J-W.; Bian, K. alpha-Asarone protects endothelial cells from injury by angiotensin II. Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med., 2014, 2014, 1-7.

Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as

Article Details

Year: 2019
Published on: 24 September, 2019
Page: [1459 - 1471]
Pages: 13
DOI: 10.2174/1389557519666190620091915
Price: $65

Article Metrics

PDF: 26