Cancer vaccines have been widely explored as a key tool for effective cancer immunotherapy. Despite
a convincing rationale behind cancer vaccines, extensive past efforts were unsuccessful in mediating significantly
relevant anti-tumor activity in clinical studies. One of the major reasons for such poor outcome, among others, is
the low immunogenicity of more traditional vaccines, such as peptide-, protein- and DNA- based vaccines.
Recently, mRNA emerged as a promising alternative to traditional vaccine strategies due to its high immunogenicity,
suitability for large-scale and low-cost production, and superior safety profile. However, the clinical
application of mRNA-based anti-cancer vaccines has been limited by their instability and inefficient in vivo delivery.
Recent technological advances have now largely overcome these issues and lipid-based vectors have demonstrated
encouraging results as mRNA vaccine platforms against several types of cancers. This review intends to
provide a detailed overview of lipid-based vectors for the development of therapeutic mRNA-based anti-tumor