Overview of Sustainable Plant Growth and Differentiation and the Role of Hormones in Controlling Growth and Development of Plants under Various Stresses

(E-pub Ahead of Print)

Author(s): Shahid Ali*, Qingzhu Zhang.

Journal Name: Recent Patents on Food, Nutrition & Agriculture

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Plant development is different from the animal by many fundamental aspects, immobilized cell, rigid cell wall, and the large central vacuole. The plant growth and cell division activities are restricted to the specific area of the shoot and root called meristems, and the plants have highly totipotency ability of differentiation, dedifferentiation and redifferentiation. Growth is one of the primary and conspicuous characteristics of living organisms. Growth is generally defining the irreversible permanent increase in the size of the organ or even single cell, due to both cell division and expansion. The plants pass through different stages e.g. embryonic, vegetative and reproductive, and in each stage, they produce different organs on the same stem. The height and girth of the plants grow continuously but leaves and flowers have definite dimensional size and fall down periodically. Where and how the structures like shoots, roots, leave and the flower is differentiated from same mother cell (zygote)? All the plant's organs are made of different tissues dermal, vascular and ground tissue and each tissue have precious role in plant survival and development. How the plant organs arrange spatial around the stem axis clock or anti clock wise direction (phyllotaxis)? The plant hormone is one of the important factors which control the plant development; the development is the combine process of growth and differentiation. So the differentiation is the process in which the cell are organized into different shape and functions according to the genetically and environmental signal. In this chapter, we will study both the intrinsic and extrinsic factors which govern the growth and differentiation. Briefly study some basic genetic modification occur in the cell, cell signaling during growth and differentiation. We need to know generally about the three basic structures of the plant organs root, shoot, and leaves.

Keywords: Plant hormones, Signalling, Differentiation

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(E-pub Ahead of Print)
DOI: 10.2174/2212798410666190619104712

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