An Overview of the Design, Development and Applications of Biodegradable Stents

Author(s): Keerthana Nakka, Sri D. Nagarajan*, Balamayilsamy Sundaravadivel, Subramanian Shankaravel, Christopher Vimalson.

Journal Name: Drug Delivery Letters

Volume 10 , Issue 1 , 2020

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Graphical Abstract:


Abstract:

Background & Objectives: Stents have been effectively used in the treatment of vascular diseases and further explorations are going on in treating various strictures including tracheal, intestinal, nasal, urethra and esophageal. Stents serve as a support to walls of the lumen to prevent restenosis. Metal stents prevent in-stent restenosis but the corrosion of the metallic framework causes further complications. To overcome the shortcomings of metallic stents, metallic Drug-Eluting Stents (DES) have been designed where the drugs are chosen as an anti-restenosis agent in such a way that it prevents thrombosis, neointimal proliferation and possess immunosuppressive properties. Biodegradable stents are becoming ideal, provided they effectively spot the target stricture and have long-term stability to support the walls of the body conduit which in turn aids in eliminating the need for a second surgery. Polymeric materials can be used to enhance the mechanical strength and prolong the degradation time of biodegradable DES, thereby making it an ideal choice for stenting.

Discussion: This review focus on the progress made in the design, manufacture, characterization studies and applications of stents over the past decade.

Conclusion: We concluded that the use of stents is now an emerging technique for the treatment of GI strictures caused due to colorectal cancer, esophageal cancer, cholangiocarcinoma, Crohn’s disease etc. Though BDS have several advantages, advanced techniques are needed for fabrication and suitable modification in the design of the scaffold to enhance its clinical efficacy and to thereby develop an ideal endoprosthetic device.

Keywords: Biodegradable stents, degradation studies, dynamic testing, eye stents, laser cutting, stent materials.

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