Recent Advances in Standardization of Herbal Drugs

Author(s): Anjoo Kamboj*, Ishtdeep Kaur, Narinder Kaur

Journal Name: Current Traditional Medicine

Volume 6 , Issue 4 , 2020


Become EABM
Become Reviewer
Call for Editor

Graphical Abstract:


Abstract:

Background: Herbal drugs play a significant role to maintain the human healthiness and to treat the ailments since the dawn of civilization. Moreover, these plants have provided many lead compounds that culminated in modern medicine. A single herb is regarded as mini-combinatorial library of phytoconstituents hence the quality control of herbal drugs in an herbal formulation is not an easy task because a number of factors impact their pharmacological efficiency and consistent therapeutic effects. Hence, to provide consistent beneficial therapeutic effects, standardized herbal products of consistent quality and purity are required.

Methods: This review is based on publications obtained by a selective search in PubMed using the keywords “Standardized herbal products”, “fingerprinting”, “authentication”, “chemometric, hyphenated techniques”, “quality control of herbal drugs”, “identification”.

Results: In the era of modernization, chromatographic techniques coupled with sophisticated spectroscopic analytical methods are used in estimating the authenticity, identity and characteristic of herbal products. Further, with the advancement of computer technology, chemometrics methods have become a leading tool with an unsupervised pattern recognition technique for handling multivariate data without prior knowledge about the studied samples and mines more beneficial and valuable information about the chemical entities from the raw data.

Conclusion: Standardization of HDs chromatographic fingerprint is not always a perfect way to present all compounds. To assess the quality of medicinal plants, new ways are regularly being explored such as combination chemical fingerprint with biological methods, biofingerprint and metabolic fingerprint quality metrology, pharmacodynamics and export system of medicinal plants have been researched in some groups but still a significant amount of work is required to achieve a perfect system for quality evaluation of herbal drugs. Further, novel chemometric techniques have been unfolded that mines more beneficial and valuable information about the chemical entities from the raw data. So this review emphasis mainly on hyphenated techniques associated with chemometric method used in herbal drugs for identifying more valuable information and various methods for providing data, among which most commonly used techniques are chemometric resolution method and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) method.

Keywords: Standardized herbal products, fingerprinting, authentication, chemometric, hyphenated techniques.

[1]
Prakash P, Gupta N. Therapeutic uses of Ocimum sanctum Linn (Tulsi) with a note on eugenol and its pharmacological actions: a short review. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 2005; 49(2): 125-31.
[PMID: 16170979]
[2]
World Health Organization. WHO Traditional medicine strategy: 2014-2023 China In: . World Health Organization Hong Kong SAR 2013.
[3]
Vishwakarma AP, Vishwe A, Sahu P, Chaurasiya A. Magical remedies of Terminalia arjuna (ROXB.). Int J Pharmaceut Arch 2013; 2: 189-201.
[4]
Winslow LC, Kroll DJ. Herbs as medicines. Arch Intern Med 1998; 158(20): 2192-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archinte.158.20.2192] [PMID: 9818799]
[5]
Balunas MJ, Kinghorn AD. Drug discovery from medicinal plants. Life Sci 2005; 78(5): 431-41.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2005.09.012] [PMID: 16198377]
[6]
De Smet PA. The role of plant-derived drugs and herbal medicines in healthcare. Drugs 1997; 54(6): 801-40.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2165/00003495-199754060-00003] [PMID: 9421691]
[7]
Butler MS. The role of natural product chemistry in drug discovery. J Nat Prod 2004; 67(12): 2141-53.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/np040106y] [PMID: 15620274]
[8]
Pan SY, Litscher G, Gao SH, et al. Historical perspective of traditional indigenous medical practices: the current renaissance and conservation of herbal resources. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2014; 2014525340
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/525340] [PMID: 24872833]
[9]
World Health Organization. WHO expert committee on specifications for Pharmaceutical preparations-WHO technical report series In: World Health Organization 1996; pp. 200-863.
[10]
Harish P. Herbal drugs. Curr Sci 2001; 81(1): 15.
[11]
Pathak K, Das RJ. Herbal medicine- A rational approach in health care system. Int J of Herb Med 2013; 1(3): 86-9.
[12]
Bansal G, Kaur I, Kaur J. Herbal health products quality through stability studies: A global regulatory concern. Appl Clin Res Clin Trials Regul Aff 2016; 3: 1-10.
[13]
Schmidt B, Ribnicky DM, Poulev A, Logendra S, Cefalu WT, Raskin I. A natural history of botanical therapeutics. Metabolism 2008; 57(7)(Suppl. 1): S3-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.metabol.2008.03.001] [PMID: 18555851]
[14]
Williamson EM. Synergy and other interactions in phytomedicines. Phytomed 2001; 8(5): 401-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1078/0944-7113-00060] [PMID: 11695885]
[15]
Gómez CJR, Prieto JM, Heinrich M. Red Lapacho (Tabebuia impetiginosa)-A- global ethnopharmacological commodity? J Ethnopharmacol 2009; 121(1): 1-13.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2008.10.004] [PMID: 18992801]
[16]
Raskin I, Ripoll C. Can an apple a day keep the doctor away? Curr Pharm Des 2004; 10(27): 3419-29.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1381612043383070] [PMID: 15544525]
[17]
Houghton PJ. Establishing identification criteria for botanicals. Drug Inf J 1998; 32: 461-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/009286159803200219]
[18]
Kaur I, Suthar N, Kaur J, Bansal Y, Bansal G. Accelerated stability studies on dried extracts of Centella asiatica through chemical, HPLC, HPTLC, and biological activity analyses. J Evid Based Complemen Altern Med 2016; 21(4): NP127-37.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2156587216661468] [PMID: 27486096]
[19]
Poornima B. Adulteration and substitution in herbal drugs- A critical analysis. Int J Res Ayurveda Pharm 2010; 1(1): 8-12.
[20]
Prakash O, Jyoti AK, Kumar P, Manna NK. Adulteration and substitution in Indian medicinal plants: An Overview. J Med Plants Stud 2013; 1(4): 127-32.
[21]
Pradhan N, Gavali J, Waghmare N. WHO (World Health Organization) guidelines for standardization of herbal drugs. Int Ayurvedic Med J 2015; 3(8): 2238-43.
[22]
Kamboj A. Analytical evaluation of herbal drugs. Drug Discov Res Pharmacogn 2012; 3: 23-55.http://www.intechopen.com/books/drug discoveryresearch-in-pharmacognosy/analytical-evaluation-of-herbaldrugs
[23]
Lindon JC, Nicholson JK, Sidelmann UG, Wilson ID. Directly coupled HPLC-NMR and its application to drug metabolism. Drug Metab Rev 1997; 29(3): 705-46.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/03602539709037595] [PMID: 9262945]
[24]
Wolfender JL, Ndjoko K, Hostettmann K. LC/NMR in natural products chemistry. Curr Org Chem 1998; 2: 575-96.
[25]
Niessen WM. Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. In: Dekker 2nd Ed. New York 1999
[26]
Jinno K. Basics and applications of hyphenated-detection system in HPLC: Part I- Basics and applications in HPLC. Pharm Stage 2001; 1: 81-94.
[27]
Wolfender JL, Hostettmann K, Abe F, Nagao T, Okabe H, Yamauchi T. Liquid chromatography combined with thermospray and continuous-flow fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry of glycosides in crude plant extracts. J Chromatogr A 1995; 712(1): 155-68.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0021-9673(95)00522-O] [PMID: 8556148]
[28]
Albert K. On-line LC-NMR and Related Techniques In: . Wiley London 2002.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ 0470854820]
[29]
Wilson ID, Brinkman UA. Hyphenation and hypernation the practice and prospects of multiple hyphenation. J Chromatogr A 2003; 1000(1-2): 325-56.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(03)00504-1] [PMID: 12877178]
[30]
Valaskovic GA, Kelleher NL, McLafferty FW. Attomole protein characterization by capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry. Sci 1996; 273(5279): 1199-202.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.273.5279.1199] [PMID: 8703047]
[31]
Logar JK, Malej A, Franko M. Hyphenated high performance liquid chromatography-thermal lens spectrometry technique as a tool for investigations of xanthophyll cycle pigments in different taxonomic groups of marine phytoplankton. Rev Sci Instrum 2003; 74: 776-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.1516245]
[32]
Dunayevskiy YM, Vouros P, Wintner EA, Shipps GW, Carell T, Rebek J Jr. Application of capillary electrophoresis-electrospray ionization mass spectometry in the determination of molecular diversity. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1996; 93(12): 6152-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.93.12.6152] [PMID: 8650235]
[33]
Wiberg K. Multivariate spectroscopic methods for the analysis of Solutions In: . Edsbruk Akademitryck, AB 2004.
[34]
Gemperline P. Practical guide to Chemometrics In: . CRC Florida 2006.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1201/9781420018301]
[35]
Lavine B, Workman J. Chemometrics. Anal Chem 2010; 82(12): 4699-711.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ac101202z] [PMID: 20481510]
[36]
Kong WJ, Zhao YL, Xiao XH, Jin C, Li ZL. Quantitative and chemical fingerprint analysis for quality control of rhizoma Coptidischinensis based on UPLC-PAD combined with chemometrics methods. Phytomed 2009; 16(10): 950-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2009.03.016] [PMID: 19553096]
[37]
Gong F, Wang BT, Liang YZ, Chau FT, Fung YS. Variable selection for discriminating herbal medicines with chromatographic fingerprints. Anal Chim Acta 2006; 572(2): 265-71.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2006.05.032] [PMID: 17723488]
[38]
Xu CJ, Liang YZ, Chau FT, Heyden YV, Yvan VH. Pretreatments of chromatographic fingerprints for quality control of herbal medicines. J Chromatogr A 2006; 1134(1-2): 253-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2006.08.060] [PMID: 16962124]
[39]
Li BY, Hu Y, Liang YZ. Quality evaluation of fingerprints of herbal medicine with chromatographic data. Anal Chim Acta 2004; 514: 69-77.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2004.03.041]
[40]
Li BY, Hu Y, Liang YZ, Huang LF, Xu CJ, Xie PS. Spectral correlative chromatography and its application to analysis of chromatographic fingerprints of herbal medicines. J Sep Sci 2004; 27(7-8): 581-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jssc.200301660] [PMID: 15335044]
[41]
Gong F, Liang YZ, Xie PS, Chau FT. Information theory applied to chromatographic fingerprint of herbal medicine for quality control. J Chromatogr A 2003; 1002(1-2): 25-40.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(03)00648-4] [PMID: 12885076]
[42]
Kvalheim OM, Liang YZ. Heuristic evolving latent projections: Resolving two-way multicomponent data. Selectivity, latent-projective graph, datascope, local rank, and unique resolution. Anal Chem 1992; 64: 936-46.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ac00032a019]
[43]
Liang YZ, Xie P, Chan K. Quality control of herbal medicines. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2004; 812(1-2): 53-70.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1570-0232(04)00676-2] [PMID: 15556488]
[44]
Sánchez FC, Toft J, van den Bogaert B, Massart DL. Orthogonal projection approach applied to peak purity assessment. Anal Chem 1996; 68(1): 79-85.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ac950496g] [PMID: 21619222]
[45]
Sanchez FC, Vandeginste B, Hancewicz T. Resolution of complex liquid chromatography-fourier transform infrared spectroscopy data. Anal Chem 1997; 69: 1477-84.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ac9610366]
[46]
Sanchez FC, Khots M, Massart D. Algorithms for the assessment of peak purity in liquid chromatography with photodiode-array detection. Anal Chim Acta 1994; 290: 249-58.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0003-2670(94)80111-8]
[47]
Xu ZS, Zhang X, Li ZY, Qi J. Research of the HPLC fingerprint of Gastrodia elata blume produced in Jinzhai County, Anhui Province. Anhui Yiyao 2007; 11: 200-1.
[48]
Huang BK, Huang LQ, Qin LP. Cluster analysis of NIR fingerprint of four species plants in Valeriana officinalis L. Zhong Yao Cai 2008; 31: 1494-6.
[49]
Philip KH. The evolution of chemometrics. Anal Chim Acta 2003; 500: 365-77.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0003-2670(03)00944-9]
[50]
Chen H, Bakshi BR, Goel PK. Toward Bayesian chemometrics--a tutorial on some recent advances. Anal Chim Acta 2007; 602(1): 1-16.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2007.08.044] [PMID: 17936101]
[51]
Sirdaarta J, Matthews B, White A, Cock IE GC-MS. and LC-MS analysis of Kakadu plum fruit extracts displaying inhibitory activity against microbial triggers of multiple sclerosis Pharmacogn Commun 2015; 5(2): 100-15.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.5530/pc.2015.2.2]
[52]
Vijayalakshmi M, Kiruthika R, Bharathi K, Ruckmani K. Phytochemical screening by LC-MS analysis and in vitro anti- inflammatory activity of Marselia quadrifolia plant extract. Int J Pharm Tech Res 2015; 8(9): 148-57.
[53]
El-Wakil EA, Abdel-Hameed ES, El-Sayed MM, Abdel-Lateef EE. Identification of the chemical composition of the methanolic extract of Salix tetrasperma Roxb using LC-ESI-MS and evaluation its potential as antioxidant agent. Pharma Chem 2015; 7(2): 168-77.
[54]
Alberti-Dér Á. LC-ESI-MS/MS methods in profiling of flavonoid glycosides and phenolic acids in traditional medicinal plants: Sempervivum tectorum L. and Corylus avellana L. In: Semmelweis University, Doctoral school of pharmaceutical sciences. Budapest 2013.
[55]
Hanganu D, Vlase L, Olah N. LC/MS Analysis of isoflavones from Fabaceae species extracts. Farmacia 2010; 58(2): 177-83.
[56]
Abeysinghe PD. Phytochemical screening of the methanolic extract of mangrove - Rhizophora apiculata. Indian J Pharm Sci 2010; 72(2): 167.http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/bitstream/10603/119938/12/12.chapter-3.pdf
[57]
Exarchou V, Godejohann M, van Beek TA, Gerothanassis IP, Vervoort J. LC-UV-solid-phase extraction-NMR-MS combined with a cryogenic flow probe and its application to the identification of compounds present in Greek oregano. Anal Chem 2003; 75(22): 6288-94.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ac0347819] [PMID: 14616013]
[58]
Clarkson C, Staerk D, Hansen SH, Jaroszewski JW. Hyphenation of solid-phase extraction and nuclear magnetic resonance: Application of HPLC-DAD-SPE-NMR to identification of constituents of Kanahia laniflora. Anal Chem 2005; 77: 3547-53.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ac050212k] [PMID: 15924388]
[59]
Seger C, Godejohann M, Tseng LH, et al. LC-DAD-MS/SPE-NMR hyphenation. A tool for the analysis of pharmaceutically used plant extracts: identification of isobaric iridoid glycoside regioisomers from Harpagophytum procumbens. Anal Chem 2005; 77(3): 878-85.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ac048772r] [PMID: 15679357]
[60]
Miliauskas G, van Beek TA, de Waard P, Venskutonis RP, Sudhölter EJR. Identification of radical scavenging compounds in Rhaponticum carthamoides by means of LC-DAD-SPE-NMR. J Nat Prod 2005; 68(2): 168-72.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/np0496901] [PMID: 15730237]
[61]
Lambert M, Staerk D, Hansen SH, Sairafianpour M, Jaroszewski JW. Rapid extract dereplication using HPLC-SPE-NMR: analysis of isoflavonoids from Smirnowia iranica. J Nat Prod 2005; 68(10): 1500-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/np0502037] [PMID: 16252915]
[62]
Lambert M, Staerk D, Hansen SH, Jaroszewski JW, Jaroszewski JW. HPLC-SPE-NMR hyphenation in natural products research: optimization of analysis of Croton membranaceus extract. Magn Reson Chem 2005; 43(9): 771-5.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mrc.1613] [PMID: 16049947]
[63]
Christophoridou S, Dais P, Tseng LH, Spraul M. Separation and identification of phenolic compounds in olive oil by coupling high-performance liquid chromatography with postcolumn solid-phase extraction to nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (LC-SPE-NMR). J Agric Food Chem 2005; 53(12): 4667-79.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf040466r] [PMID: 15941298]
[64]
Wang CY, Lee SS. Analysis and identification of lignans in Phyllanthus urinaria by HPLC-SPE-NMR. Phytochem Anal 2005; 16(2): 120-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pca.830] [PMID: 15881120]
[65]
Pukalskas A, van Beek TA, de Waard P. Development of a triple hyphenated HPLC-radical scavenging detection-DAD-SPE-NMR system for the rapid identification of antioxidants in complex plant extracts. J Chromatogr A 2005; 1074(1-2): 81-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2005.03.089] [PMID: 15941042]
[66]
Jaroszewski JW. HPLC-SPE-NMR: A productivity tool for determination of natural products in plant material Magnetic Resonance in Food Science, the Multivariate Challenge 39-46.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/9781847551276-00039]
[67]
Asha KR, Priyanga S, Hemmalakshmi S, Devaki K. GC-MS analysis of the ethanolic extract of the whole plant Drosera indica L. Int J of Pharmacogn Phytochem Res 2017; 9(5): 685-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.25258/phyto.v9i5.8149]
[68]
Varadharaj V, Kuppan M. Identification and determination of bioactive phytochemical constituents from the hydro-alcoholic extract of Achyranthes aspera whole plant by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2015; 8(6): 125-9.
[69]
Omorowa OG, Idu M, Oghale OU. GC-MS analysis of the aqueous extracts of Buchholzia coriacea Engl (Capparidaceae), seeds. Int J Life Sci Pharma Res 2015; 5(3): 26-32.
[70]
Adinew B GC-MS. and FT-IR analysis of constituents of essential oil from cinnamon bark growing in South-west of Ethiopia Int J Herb Med 2014; 1(6): 22-31.
[71]
Ammal RM, Bai GV. GC-MS Determination of bioactive constituents of Heliotropium indicum leaf. Faslnamah-i Giyahan-i Daruyi 2013; 1(6): 29.
[72]
Joseph J, Jeeva S GC-MS. and FT-IR analysis of a coastal medicinal plant- Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit. J Coast Life Med 2016; 4(5): 380-5.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.12980/jclm.4.2016J5-147]
[73]
Hussain AZ, Kumaresan S. GC-MS analysis and phytochemical screening of Indoneesiella echioids (L.) Nees. Arch Appl Sci Res 2013; 5(5): 159-62.
[74]
Gupta AK, Bhat JL. GC-MS analysis of methanol extract of Acacia nilotica (L.) Leaves. Int J Pharm Chem 2016; 6(2): 50-3.
[75]
Jayapriya G, Gricilda Shoba F. GC-MS analysis of bio-active compounds in methanolic leaf extracts of Justicia adhatoda (Linn). J Pharmacogn Phytochem 2015; 4(1): 113-7.
[76]
Easwaran L, Ramani VA. Phytochemical examination and GC-MS studies of the medicinal plant: Naravelia zeylanica. Int J Res Dev Pharm Life Sci 2014; 3(5): 1180-8.
[77]
Mamza UT, Sodipo OA, Khan IZ. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of bioactive components of Phyllanthus amarus leaves. Int Res J Plant Sci 2012; 3(10): 208-15.
[78]
Akriti A, Rajmani P, Sayed KR, Lalitesh KT. GC-MS analysis and antibacterial activity of aerial parts of Quisqualis indica plant extracts Indian J. Pharm Educ 2017; 51.
[79]
Demoz HMS, Gachoki KP, Mungai KJ, Negusse BG. GC-MS analysis of the essential oil and methanol extract of the seeds of Steganotaenia araliacea. Am J Plant Sci 2014; 5: 3752-60.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/ajps.2014.526392]
[80]
Suresh C, Senthilkumar S, Vijayakumari K. GC-MS analysis of Tephrosia purpurea pers leaf extract- Traditional valuable plant. Int J Univers Pharm Life Sci 2012; 2(4): 86-91.
[81]
Ramautar R. Capillary electrophoresis- Mass spectrometry for clinical metabolomics. Adv Clin Chem 2016; 74: 1-34.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.acc.2015.12.002] [PMID: 27117659]
[82]
Bonvin G, Schappler J, Rudaz S. Capillary electrophoresis-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry interfaces: fundamental concepts and technical developments. J Chromatogr A 2012; 1267: 17-31.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2012.07.019] [PMID: 22846629]
[83]
Henion JD, Mordehai AV, Cai J. Quantitative capillary electrophoresis ion spray mass spectrometry on a benchtop ion trap for the determination of isoquinoline alkaloids. Anal Chem 1994; 66: 2103-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ac00085a028]
[84]
Unger M, Dreyer M, Specker S, et al. Analytical characterisation of crude extracts from an African Ancistrocladus species using high-performance liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis coupled to ion trap mass spectrometry. Phytochem Anal 2004; 15(1): 21-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pca.737] [PMID: 14979522]
[85]
Stöckigt D, Unger M, Belder D, Stöckigt J. Analysis of Rauwolfia alkaloids employing capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry. Nat Prod Lett 1997; 9: 265-72.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10575639708043638]
[86]
Sturm S, Stuppner H. Analysis of isoquinoline alkaloids in medicinal plants by capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry. Electrophoresis 1998; 19(16-17): 3026-32.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/elps.1150191639] [PMID: 9870408]
[87]
Bianco G, Schmitt-Kopplin P, De Benedetto G, Kettrup A, Cataldi TR. Determination of glycoalkaloids and relative aglycones by nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis coupled with electrospray ionizationion trap mass spectrometry Electrophoresis 2002; 23(17): 2904-12.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1522-2683(200209)23:17< 2904::AID-ELPS2904>3.0.CO;2-1] [PMID: 12207298]
[88]
Wang S, Qu H, Cheng Y. NACE-ESI-MS combined with on-line concentration for high-sensitivity analysis of quinolizidine alkaloids. Electrophoresis 2007; 28(9): 1399-406.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/elps.200600428] [PMID: 17427256]
[89]
Sturm S, Seger C, Stuppner H. Analysis of Central European Corydalis species by nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis-electrospray ion trap mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A 2007; 1159(1-2): 42-50.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2007.02.108] [PMID: 17395190]
[90]
Unger M, Stöckigt D, Belder D, Stöckigt J. Alkaloid determination in crude extracts from cortex quebracho and opium applying capillary electrophoresis and capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry coupling. Pharmazie 1997; 52: 691-5.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/chin.199751241]
[91]
Wold S, Sjoestroem M, Eriksson L. PLS-regression: A basic tool in chemometrics. Chemom Intell Lab Syst 2001; 58: 109-30.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0169-7439(01)00155-1]
[92]
Wiest J, Schollmayer C, Gresser G, Holzgrabe U. Identification and quantitation of the ingredients in a counterfeit Vietnamese herbal medicine against rheumatic diseases. J Pharm Biomed Anal 2014; 97: 24-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpba.2014.04.013] [PMID: 24793595]
[93]
Carvalho AC, Ramalho LS, Marques RF, Perfeito J. Regulation of herbal medicines in Brazil J Ethnopharmacol 2014; 158: 503-6.
[94]
Kazi T, Hussain N, Bremner P, Slater A, Howard C. The application of a DNA-based identification technique to over-the-counter herbal medicines. Fitoterapia 2013; 87: 27-30.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fitote.2013.03.001] [PMID: 23500384]
[95]
Wold S, Esbensen K, Geladi P. Principal component analysis. Chemom Intell Lab Syst 1987; 2: 37-52.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0169-7439(87)80084-9]
[96]
McKenzie JS, Donarski JA, Wilson JC, Charlton AJ. Analysis of complex mixtures using high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and chemometrics. Prog Nucl Magn Reson Spectrosc 2011; 59(4): 336-59.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pnmrs.2011.04.003] [PMID: 22027342]
[97]
Lai YH, Ni YN, Serge K. Authentication of cassia seeds on the basis of two-wavelength HPLC fingerprinting with the use of chemometrics. Chin Chem Lett 2010; 21: 213-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cclet.2009.10.031]
[98]
Guo S, Duan JA, Tang Y, et al. High-performance liquid chromatography--two wavelength detection of triterpenoid acids from the fruits of Ziziphus jujuba containing various cultivars in different regions and classification using chemometric analysis. J Pharm Biomed Anal 2009; 49(5): 1296-302.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpba.2009.03.006] [PMID: 19359121]
[99]
Daszykowski M, Heyden Y, Walczak B. Robust partial least squares model for prediction of green tea antioxidant capacity from chromatograms. J Chromatogr A 2007; 1176(1-2): 12-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2007.10.100] [PMID: 18023450]
[100]
Grayer RJ, Vieira RF, Price AM. Characterization of cultivars within species of ocimum by exudate flavonoid profiles. Biochem Syst Ecol 2004; 32: 901-13.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bse.2004.04.002]
[101]
Vieira RF, Grayer RJ, Paton A, Simon JE. Genetic diversity of Ocimum gratissimum L. based on volatile oil constituents, flavonoids and RAPD markers. Biochem Syst Ecol 2001; 29(3): 287-304.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0305-1978(00)00062-4] [PMID: 11152947]
[102]
Ding Y, Wu EQ, Liang C, et al. Discrimination of cinnamon bark and cinnamon twig samples sourced from various countries using HPLC-based fingerprint analysis. Food Chem 2011; 127(2): 755-60.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.01.011] [PMID: 23140731]
[103]
Wu L, Jiang X, Huang L, Chen S. Processing technology investigation of Loquateriobotrya japonica leaf by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry combined with chemometrics. PLoS One 2013; 8: 5.
[104]
Guo FQ, Liang YZ, Xu CJ, Huang LF. Determination of the volatile chemical constituents of Notoptergium incium by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and iterative or non-iterative chemometrics resolution methods. J Chromatogr A 2003; 1016(1): 99-110.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(03)01327-X] [PMID: 14601831]
[105]
Kong WJ, Zhao YL, Xiao XH, Jin C, Li ZL. Quantitative and chemical fingerprint analysis for quality control of rhizoma Coptidischinensis based on UPLC-PAD combined with chemometrics methods. Phytomed 2009; 16(10): 950-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2009.03.016] [PMID: 19553096]
[106]
Wang L, Wang X, Kong L. Automatic authentication and distinction of Epimedium koreanum and Epimedium wushanense with HPLC fingerprint analysis assisted by pattern recognition techniques. Biochem Syst Ecol 2012; 40: 138-45.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bse.2011.10.014]
[107]
Xu S, Yang L, Tian R, et al. Species differentiation and quality assessment of Radix Paeoniae Rubra (Chi-shao) by means of high-performance liquid chromatographic fingerprint. J Chromatogr A 2009; 1216(11): 2163-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2008.04.064] [PMID: 18490024]
[108]
Xianrui MM, Liang SW. Fingerprint analysis of Hibiscus mutabilis L. leaves based on UPLC-PAD combined with similarity analysis and hierarchical clustering analysis methods. Pharmacogn Mag 2013; 9: 238-43.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0973-1296.113277] [PMID: 23930008]
[109]
Kemsley E, Ruault S, Wilson R. Discrimination between Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora variant robusta beans using infrared spectroscopy. Food Chem 1995; 54: 321-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0308-8146(95)00030-M]
[110]
Kanakis CD, Petrakis EA, Kimbaris AC, Pappas C, Tarantilis PA, Polissiou MG. Classification of Greek Mentha pulegium L. (Pennyroyal) samples, according to geographical location by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Phytochem Anal 2012; 23(1): 34-43.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pca.1322] [PMID: 21618307]
[111]
Ni Y, Mei M, Kokot S. One- and two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high performance liquid chromatography-diode-array detector fingerprints of complex substances: a comparison of classification performance of similar, complex Rhizoma Curcumae samples with the aid of chemometrics. Anal Chim Acta 2012; 712: 37-44.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2011.11.010] [PMID: 22177063]
[112]
Peng L, Wang Y, Zhu H, Chen Q. Fingerprint profile of active components for Artemisia selengensis Turcz by HPLC-PAD combined with chemometrics. Food Chem 2011; 125: 1064-71.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2010.09.079]
[113]
Ernst E. Toxic heavy metals and undeclared drugs in Asian herbal medicines. Trends Pharmacol Sci 2002; 23(3): 136-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0165-6147(00)01972-6] [PMID: 11879681]
[114]
Wang HW, Liu YQ. Evaluation of trace and toxic element concentrations in Paris polyphylla from China with empirical and chemometrics approaches. Food Chem 2010; 121: 887-92.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2010.01.012]
[115]
Kolasani A, Xu H, Millikan M. Evaluation of mineral content of Chinese medicinal herbs used to improve kidney function with chemometrics. Food Chem 2010; 127: 1465-71.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.01.106]
[116]
Arumugam R, Ragupathi RK R, Jayalakshmi J, Manivannan K, Karthikai Devi G, Anantharaman P. Determination of element contents in herbal drugs: chemometric approach. Food Chem 2012; 135(4): 2372-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.07.040] [PMID: 22980815]
[117]
Zhong K, Wang Q, He Y, He X. Evaluation of radicals scavenging, immunity-modulatory and antitumor activities of longan polysaccharides with ultrasonic extraction on in S180 tumor mice models. Int J Biol Macromol 2010; 47(3): 356-60.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2010.05.022] [PMID: 20685359]
[118]
Hossain MB, Brunton NP, Patras A, et al. Optimization of ultrasound assisted extraction of antioxidant compounds from marjoram (Origanum majorana L.) using response surface methodology. Ultrason Sonochem 2012; 19(3): 582-90.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ultsonch.2011.11.001] [PMID: 22172467]
[119]
Chemat F, Zill-e-Huma , Khan MK. Applications of ultrasound in food technology: Processing, preservation and extraction. Ultrason Sonochem 2011; 18(4): 813-35.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ultsonch.2010.11.023] [PMID: 21216174]
[120]
Mandal V, Mohan Y, Hemalatha S. Microwave assisted extraction- An innovative and promising extraction tool for medicinal plant research. Pharmacogn Rev 2007; 1(1): 7-18.
[121]
Sultana B, Anwar F, Przybylski R. Antioxidant potential of corncob extracts for stabilization of corn oil subjected to microwave heating. Food Chem 2007; 104: 997-1005.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.12.061]
[122]
Sarkis JR, Boussetta N, Blouet C, Tessaro IC, Ferreira MLD, Vorobiev E. Effect of pulsed electric fields and high voltage electrical discharges on polyphenol and protein extraction from sesame cake. Innov Food Sci Emerg Technol 2015; 29: 170-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ifset.2015.02.011]
[123]
Masouleh TZ, Asadollahi S, Eshaghi MR. Effects of pulsed electric fields as a pre-treatment on yield extraction and some quality properties of sesame oil. Int J Rev Life Sci 2015; 5(10): 1100-4.
[124]
Kleijnen JPC. Experimental Design for Sensitivity Analysis, Optimization, and Validation of Simulation Models Handbook of Simulation: Principles, Methodology, Advances, Applications and Practice. New York: John Wiley & Sons 1998; pp. 173-223.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9780470172445.ch6]
[125]
Myers RH, Montgomery DC. Response Surface Methodology In: . John Wiley & Sons New York 2002.
[126]
Neddermeijer HG, van Oortmarssen GJ, Piersma N, Dekker R. A framework for response surface methodology for simulation optimization models. In: Joines JA, Barton RR, Kang K, Fishwick PA, Eds. Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference 2000; 10-13 Dec. Orlando, FL, USA. 2000; pp. 129-36.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/WSC.2000.899707]


Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as

Article Details

VOLUME: 6
ISSUE: 4
Year: 2020
Published on: 30 July, 2020
Page: [278 - 299]
Pages: 22
DOI: 10.2174/2215083805666190613141613
Price: $25

Article Metrics

PDF: 19
HTML: 3
EPUB: 1
PRC: 1