Background: Anti-phospholipid antibodies have the potential to become an alternative to conventional
antibiotics for humans. The Antiphospholipid Syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune disease where
the body’s defense system incorrectly reacts against its own phospholipids. APS is distinct through the existence
of venous and arterial thromboses, frequently multiple and recurring fetal losses, commonly accompanied
by moderate thrombocytopenia. Anti-phospholipid antibodies include lupus anti-coagulant, anti-
cardiolipin, anti-beta 2 glycoprotein 1, and anti-prothrombin antibodies.
Methods: In this study, the mechanism of action of Anti-phospholipid antibodies against Klebsiella pneumonia
and Staphylococcus aureus was investigated in great detail using a unique combination of imaging
and biophysical techniques. Antibacterial activity of antiphospholipid antibodies was detected by a diffusion
method and the investigation of the complexity of antibody-antigen was done by spectroscopic examination,
scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging.
Results: There was a profound change in the bacteria treated with healthy and patient serum in the optical
microscopic study. In all of the studied fields, bacterial treatment with patient serum immediately induced
bacterial swelling and cumulative accumulation of the bacteria while no changes were observed in the
healthy serum. Anti-bacterial activities of patient serum were detected on the plate. The result of this study
showed that after platelet activation by thrombin and incubation with antiphospholipid antibodies, the
platelet was aggregated. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image showed that the cell wall of
Klebsiella pneumonia and Staphylococcus aureus incubated with antiphospholipid had a bizarre shape and
antiphospholipid antibodies bound to bacterial membranes.
Conclusion: The data indicated that antiphospholipid antibodies with hemolysis activities have an effect on
Gram-positive and negative bacteria and these antibodies have the potential to become antibiotic for human.