Application of Calophyllum Inophyllum Seed Husk as a Low-cost Biosorbent for Efficient Removal of Heavy Metals from Wastewater for a Safer Environment

Author(s): Adeniyi A. Adenuga*, John Adekunle O. Oyekunle, Olufemi D. Amos

Journal Name: Current Environmental Engineering
Continued as Current Environmental Management

Volume 6 , Issue 2 , 2019

Become EABM
Become Reviewer
Call for Editor

Graphical Abstract:


Background: Effective treatment of wastewaters for potentially toxic metals especially at affordable cost is critical to the well-being of man and the environment.

Objective: This study optimized the conditions for the application of Calophyllum inophyllum seed husk as biosorbent for simultaneous removal of heavy metals from aqueous solutions and investigated the removal efficiencies of the biosorbent for Pb2+ and Cd2+ in wastewater samples.

Methods: The dependence of the adsorption process on pH, adsorbent dosage, temperature, initial metal ions concentration, and contact time was evaluated in a batch system by determining the degree of adsorption of Pb2+ and Cd2+ in simulated industrial wastewater before application of the biosorbent for metals cleanup in industrial and domestic wastewater samples.

Results: The results showed that charring and microwave irradiation of the biosorbent produced the best performance. The pH of the aqueous solution played a crucial role in the performance of the biosorbent. Optimum adsorption for both metals occurred within the first 60 minutes of the process at pH value around 9. Kinetic studies of the process gave good correlation coefficients for a pseudo-second order kinetic model with adsorption data that fitted well into the Freundlich and Langmuir models but with Freundlich isotherm displaying better fitness. The adsorption capacities of the biosorbent were 42.19 and 22.47 mg/g for Pb2+ and Cd2+, respectively.

Conclusion: The study concluded that the good adsorption capacities of Calophyllum inophyllum seed husk for the metals is an indications of its considerable potential as a low-cost biosorbent for simultaneous removal of potentially toxic metals from wastewaters.

Keywords: Agricultural waste, seed husk, adsorption Isotherms, wastewater, Lead, cadmium.

Verma R, Dwivedi P. Heavy metal water pollution-A case study Recent Res Sci Technol 2013 5(5).
Spellman FR. The drinking water handbook CRC Press 2017.
Verma A, Rejendra K, Singh K, Shukla S. Use of low cost adsorbents for the remediation of heavy metals from waste water. Int J Latest Technol Eng Manage Appl Sci (Basel) 2017; VI(VII): 13-20.
Oluyemi EA, Oyekunle JA, Olasoji SO. A comparative study of the removal of heavy metal ions from synthetic wastewa ters using different adsorbents. Adsorpt Sci Technol 2009; 27(5): 493-501.
Qadir M, Wichelns D, Raschid-Sally L, et al. The challenges of wastewater irrigation in developing countries. Agric Water Manage 2010; 97(4): 561-8.
Chary NS, Kamala CT, Raj DSS. Assessing risk of heavy metals from consuming food grown on sewage irrigated soils and food chain transfer. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2008; 69(3): 513-24.
Qadeer R, Akhtar S. Kinetics study of lead ion adsorption on active carbon. Turk J Chem 2005; 29(1): 95-100.
Abdel-Ghani NT, Elchaghaby GA. Influence of operating conditions on the removal of Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb ions from wastewater by adsorption. Int J Environ Sci Technol 2007; 4(4): 451-6.
Babel S, Kurniawan TA. Cr(VI) removal from synthetic wastewater using coconut shell charcoal and commercial activated carbon modified with oxidizing agents and/or chitosan. Chemosphere 2004; 54(7): 951-67.
Wu D, Niu C, Li D, Bai Y. Solvent extraction of scandium (III), yttrium (III), lanthanum (III) and gadolinium (III) using Cyanex 302 in heptane from hydrochloric acid solutions. J Alloys Compd 2004; 374(1): 442-6.
Mathew BB, Jaishankar M, Biju VG, Beeregowda KN. Role of bioadsorbents in reducing toxic metals. J Toxicol 2016; 2016: 4369604.
Lonappan L, Rouissi T, Kaur Brar S, Verma M, Surampalli RY. An insight into the adsorption of diclofenac on different biochars: Mechanisms, surface chemistry, and thermodynamics. Bioresour Technol 2018; 249: 386-94.
Tan G, Sun W, Xu Y, Wang H, Xu N. Sorption of mercury (II) and atrazine by biochar, modified biochars and biochar based activated carbon in aqueous solution. Bioresour Technol 2016; 211: 727-35.
Park SJ, Kim KD. Adsorption behaviors of CO2 and NH3 on chemically surface-treated activated carbons. J Colloid Interface Sci 1999; 212(1): 186-9.
Ferro-Garcia MA, Rivera-Utrilla J, Rodriguez-Gordillo J, Bautista-Toledo I. Adsorption of zinc, cadmium, and copper on activated carbons obtained from agricultural by-products. Carbon 1988; 26(3): 363-73.
Ricordel S, Taha S, Cisse I, Dorange G. Heavy metals removal by adsorption onto peanut husks carbon: Characterization, kinetic study and modeling. Separ Purif Tech 2001; 24(3): 389-401.
Rao MM, Ramesh A, Rao GPC, Seshaiah K. Removal of copper and cadmium from the aqueous solutions by activated carbon derived from Ceiba pentandra hulls. J Hazard Mater 2006; 129(1-3): 123-9.
Lawal OS, Sanni AR, Ajayi IA, Rabiu OO. Equilibrium, thermodynamic and kinetic studies for the biosorption of aqueous lead(II) ions onto the seed husk of Calophyllum inophyllum. J Hazard Mater 2010; 177(1-3): 829-35.
Umukoro EH, Oyekunle JAO, Owoyomi O, Ogunfowokan AO, Oke IA. Adsorption characteristics and mechanisms of plantain peel charcoal in removal of Cu (II) and Zn (II) ions from wastewaters. Ife J Sci 2014; 16(3): 365-76.
Esfandiari N. Synthesis of activated carbon from sugarcane bagasse and application for mercury adsorption. Pollution 2019; 3(5): 585-96.
Malik R, Saini N, Ahlawat S, Singhal S, Lata S. Convenient and efficient elimination of heavy metals from wastewater using smart pouch with biomaterial. Pollution 2019; 5(1): 13-31.
Hamdaoui O, Chiha M. Biosorption of methylene blue by a brown algae Cystoseirabarbatulakutzing. Acta Chim Slov 2007; 54: 407-18.
Lagergren SZ. Theorie der sogenannten adsorption gelosterstoffe. K Sven Vetenskapsakad Handl 1898; 24: 1-39.
Ho YS, McKay G. The kinetics of sorption of divalent metal ions onto sphagnummoss peat. Water Resour 2000; 34: 735-42.
Senthilkumar R, Vijayaraghavan K, Thilakavathi M, Iyer PVR, Velan M. Application of seaweeds for the removal of lead from aqueous solution. Biochem Eng J 2007; 33(3): 211-6.
Mahmoodi NM. Equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamics of dye removal using alginate in binary systems. J Chem Eng Data 2011; 56: 2802-11.
Gnanasambandam R, Proctor A. Determination of pectin degree of esterification by diffuse reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Food Chem 2000; 68(3): 327-32.
Rao RAK, Kashifuddin M. Kinetics and isotherm studies of Cd (II) adsorption from aqueous solution utilizing seeds of bottlebrush plant (Callistemon chisholmii). Appl Water Sci 2014; 4(4): 371-83.
Guibaud G, Tixier N, Bouju A, Baudu M. Relation between extracellular polymers’ composition and its ability to complex Cd, Cu and Pb. Chemosphere 2003; 52(10): 1701-10.
Farinella NV, Matos GD, Arruda MAZ. Grape bagasse as a potential biosorbent of metals in effluent treatments. Bioresour Technol 2007; 98(10): 1940-6.
Kratochvil D, Volesky B. Advances in the biosorption of heavy metals. Trends Biotechnol 1998; 16(7): 2971-300.
Lodeiro P, Barriada JL, Herrero R, Sastre de Vicente ME. The marine macroalga Cystoseira baccata as biosorbent for cadmium(II) and lead(II) removal: Kinetic and equilibrium studies. Environ Pollut 2006; 142(2): 264-73.
Munagapati VS, Yarramuthi V, Nadavala SK, Alla SR, Abburi K. Biosorption of Cu (II), Cd (II) and Pb (II) by Acacia leucocephala bark powder: Kinetics, equilibrium and thermodynamics. Chem Eng J 2010; 157(2): 357-65.
Asghari F, Jahanshahi M, Ghoreyshi AA. A comparative study of agarose-nickel prototype composite adsorbent and commercial streamline deae adsorbent: Physical and hydrodynamical assessments. Iran J Energy Environ 2012; 3(4): 291-8.
Banerjee K, Ramesh ST, Gandhimathi R, Nidheesh PV, Bharathi KS. A novel agricultural waste adsorbent, watermelon shell for the removal of copper from aqueous solutions. Iran J Energy Environ 2012; 3(2): 143-56.
Amuda OS, Giwa AA, Bello IA. Removal of heavy metal from industrial wastewater using modified activated coconut shell carbon. Biochem Eng J 2007; 36(2): 174-81.
Abdel-Aty AM, Ammar NS, Abdel Ghafar HH, Ali RK. Biosorption of cadmium and lead from aqueous solution by fresh water alga Anabaena sphaerica biomass. J Adv Res 2013; 4(4): 367-74.
Vijayakumar G, Tamilarasan R, Dharmendirakumar M. Adsorption, kinetic, equilibrium and thermodynamic studies on the removal of basic dye Rhodamine-B from aqueous solution by the use of natural adsorbent perlite. J Mater Environ Sci 2012; 3(1): 157-70.
Rajamohan N, Rajasimman M, Rajeshkannan R, Saravanan V. Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic studies on the removal of aluminum by modified Eucalyptus camaldulensis barks. Alexandria Eng J 2014; 53(2): 409-15.
Ghodbane I, Hamdaoui O. Removal of mercury(II) from aqueous media using eucalyptus bark: Kinetic and equilibrium studies. J Hazard Mater 2008; 160(2-3): 301-9.
Wanees SA, Monem A, Adam MS, Mohamed MA. Adsorption studies on the removal of hexavalent chromium-contaminated wastewater using activated carbon and bentonite. Asian J Chem 2013; 25(15): 8245.
Baral SS, Das SN, Rath P. Hexavalent chromium removal from aqueous solution by adsorption on treated sawdust. Biochem Eng J 2006; 31(3): 216-22.
Lehmann RG, Harter RD. Assessment of copper-soil bond strength by desorption kinetics. Soil Sci Soc Am J 1984; 48(4): 769-72.
Martínez M, Miralles N, Hidalgo S, Fiol N, Villaescusa I, Poch J. Removal of lead(II) and cadmium(II) from aqueous solutions using grape stalk waste. J Hazard Mater 2006; 133(1-3): 203-11.
Volesky B, Holan ZR. Biosorption of heavy metals. Biotechnol Prog 1995; 11(3): 235-50.
Davis TA, Volesky B, Mucci A. A review of the biochemistry of heavy metal biosorption by brown algae. Water Res 2003; 37(18): 4311-30.
Langmuir I. The constitution and fundamental properties of solids and liquids. Part. I: Solids. J Am Chem Soc 1916; 38(11): 2221-95.
Freundlich H. Adsorption in solutions. Z Phys Chem (Germany) 1906; 57: 385-470.
Benjamin MM, Leckie JO. Multiple-site adsorption of Cd, Cu, Zn, and Pb on amorphous iron oxyhydroxide. J Coll Interf Sci 1981; 79(1): 209-21.
Thouraya B. Adsorption on activated carbon from olive stones: Kinetics and equilibrium of phenol removal from aqueous solution. J Chem Eng Process Technol 2013; 4(6)
Benhammou A, Yaacoubi A, Nibou L, Tanouti B. Adsorption of metal ions onto Moroccan stevensite: Kinetic and isotherm studies. J Coll Interf Sci 2005; 282(2): 320-6.
Zachara JM, Cowan CE, Resch CT. Sorption of divalent metals on calcite. Geo Chimicaetcosmochimica Acta 1991; 55(6): 1549-62.
Sawalha MF, Peralta-Videa JR, Romero-González J, Gardea-Torresdey JL. Biosorption of Cd(II), Cr(III), and Cr(VI) by saltbush (Atriplex canescens) biomass: Thermodynamic and isotherm studies. J Colloid Interface Sci 2006; 300(1): 100-4.
Aravindhan R, Rao JR, Nair BU. Removal of basic yellow dye from aqueous solution by sorption on green alga Caulerpa scalpelliformis. J Hazard Mater 2007; 142(1-2): 68-76.
Raoov M, Mohamad S, Abas MR. Removal of 2,4-dichlorophenol using cyclodextrin-ionic liquid polymer as a macroporous material: characterization, adsorption isotherm, kinetic study, thermodynamics. J Hazard Mater 2013; 263(Pt 2): 501-16.
Mekonnen E, Yitbarek M, Soreta TR. Kinetic and thermodynamic studies of the adsorption of Cr(VI) onto some selected local adsorbents. S Afr J Chem 2015; 68: 45-52.
Kariuki Z, Kiptoo J, Onyancha D. Biosorption studies of lead and copper using rogers mushroom biomass Lepiotahystrix. South African J Chem Eng 2017; 23: 62.

open access plus

Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as

Article Details

Year: 2019
Published on: 10 September, 2019
Page: [159 - 172]
Pages: 14
DOI: 10.2174/2212717806666190611150136

Article Metrics

PDF: 11