The Protective Effect of Korean Red Ginseng Against Rotenone-Induced Parkinson’s Disease in Rat Model: Modulation of Nuclear Factor-κβ and Caspase-3

Author(s): Mai A. Zaafan, Amr M. Abdelhamid, Sherine M. Ibrahim*.

Journal Name: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology

Volume 20 , Issue 7 , 2019

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Graphical Abstract:


Objective: Korean red ginseng was reported to have many biological effects like the antioxidant and the anti-inflammatory activities. Oxidative stress and neuro-inflammation play major roles in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease (PD). The current study aimed to investigate the protective effects of ginseng on rotenone-induced PD in rats.

Methods: Rats were randomly allocated into 4 groups: normal rats, rotenone control, ginseng+rotenone and ginseng only treated rats. The severity of PD was evaluated through locomotor activity perceived in the open field test, histological examination and immunohistochemical detection of amyloid-β in brain tissues, in addition to the biochemical assessment of tyrosine hydroxylase activity in brain tissues. Moreover, the following parameters were investigated for studying the possible mechanisms of ginseng neuroprotective effect: nuclear factor-κβ (NF-κβ), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), caspase- 3, lipid peroxides and reduced glutathione (GSH).

Results: Ginseng exhibited potent neuroprotective effect that was reflected upon the histopathological examination, marked improvement in the locomotor activity and through its ability to suppress the amyloid- β deposition in the cortex and striatum along with significant increase in the tyrosine hydroxylase activity. Ginseng successfully inhibited the NF-κβ inflammatory pathway in brain tissues beside the inhibition of other oxidative stress and inflammatory mediators. Furthermore, it exhibited antiapoptotic effect via the inhibition of caspase-3 expression.

Conclusion: Ginseng could be a promising treatment in PD. It can suppress dopaminergic neuron degeneration through variable mechanisms mainly via inhibition of NF-κβ pathway in addition to inhibition of oxidative stress and apoptosis.

Keywords: Ginseng, Parkinson's disease, anti-oxidant, nuclear factor-κβ, caspase-3, Rat model.

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Article Details

Year: 2019
Page: [588 - 594]
Pages: 7
DOI: 10.2174/1389201020666190611122747
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