Background: Leishmaniasis is a major health problem which is caused by the protozoan
parasite of the genus Leishmania. Cutaneous leishmaniasis is one type of leishmaniasis and selflimited
in most of the cases. However, when the lesions come with scars, they make a deep lifelong
stigma. Despite being WHO's research priority, the optimum treatment for this disease has not
been found yet. The current study aimed to synthesize and assess the activity of some new aminothiazole
compounds against Leishmania major-induced cutaneous leishmaniasis in BALB/c mice.
Methods: Eight new aminothiazole derivatives were synthesized and their chemical structures
were characterized by spectral data 1H-NMR spectroscopy, Mass spectrophotometry and elemental
analysis. L. major parasites were inoculated into the tail base of BALB/c mice and the induced lesions
were treated every other day with three different doses of the synthesized compounds against
meglumine antimoniate as the drug reference for two weeks. Size of the lesions was observed for
three weeks and the collected data were analyzed by SPSS software. Also, these compounds are
docked into the active site of 14- α-demethylase as the targets in the treatment of leishmaniasis.
Results: Among the synthesized aminothiazole derivatives, compounds 1, 2, 3, 4, and 7 had good
leishmanicidal effects. Docking binding energies showed that the synthesized compounds could act
as inhibitors for 14- α-demethylase.
Conclusion: Among the synthesized compounds, compound 3, (N-((4-chlorophenyl)(phenyl)
methyl)thiazol-2-amine) was the most promising one which deserves future studies for the treatment