Anaerobic Glycolysis and Glycogenolysis do not Release Protons and do not Cause Acidosis

Author(s): Rossana Pesi*, Francesco Balestri, Piero L. Ipata

Journal Name: Current Metabolomics and Systems Biology
Formerly Current Metabolomics

Volume 7 , Issue 1 , 2020


Become EABM
Become Reviewer
Call for Editor

Graphical Abstract:


Abstract:

Background: A metabolic pathway is composed of a series of enzymatic steps, where the product of each reaction becomes the substrate of the subsequent one. We can summarize the single reactions to obtain the overall equation of the metabolic pathway, suggesting its role in the metabolic network.

Objective: In this short review, we aim at presenting our present knowledge on the biochemical features underlying the interrelation between acidosis occurring during anaerobic muscle contraction and the glycolytic and glycogenolytic pathways. We emphasize that both pathways per se are not acidifying processes.

Conclusion: The review emphasizes the following points: i) The importance that single reactions, as well as the overall equation of a metabolic pathway, are balanced; ii) Unbalanced reactions lead to unbalanced overall equations, whose functions cannot be correctly understood; iii) Glycogen acts as the major fuel for muscle anaerobic contraction. Anaerobic glycogenolysis not only does not release protons, but it also consumes one proton; iv) When dealing with metabolic acidosis, it should be always recalled that protons are released by muscle ATPase activity, not by glycolysis or glycogenolysis.

Keywords: Anaerobic acidosis, metabolic networks, glycolysis and glycogenolysis, purine nucleotide cycle, lactic acidosis, ATPase.

[1]
Nielsen, O.B.; de Paoli, F.; Overgaard, K. Protective effects of lactic acid on force production in rat skeletal muscle. J. Physiol., 2001, 536(Pt 1), 161-166.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7793.2001.t01-1-00161.x] [PMID: 11579166]
[2]
Cairns, S.P. Lactic acid and exercise performance: culprit or friend? Sports Med., 2006, 36(4), 279-291.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2165/00007256-200636040-00001] [PMID: 16573355]
[3]
Kristensen, M.; Albertsen, J.; Rentsch, M.; Juel, C. Lactate and force production in skeletal muscle. J. Physiol., 2005, 562(Pt 2), 521-526.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/jphysiol.2004.078014] [PMID: 15550457]
[4]
Robergs, R.A. Exercise induced metabolic acidosis: where do the protons come from? Sportscience, 2001, 5(2), 1-20.
[5]
Button, J.R.; Jones, H.L.; Toews, C.J. Effect of PH on muscle glycolysis during exercise. Clin. Sci. (Lond.), 1981, 61(3), 331-338.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/cs0610331] [PMID: 7261554]
[6]
Andersen, L.W.; Mackenhauer, J.; Roberts, J.C.; Berg, K.M.; Cocchi, M.N.; Donnino, M.W. Etiology and therapeutic approach to elevated lactate levels. Mayo Clin. Proc., 2013, 88(10), 1127-1140.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mayocp.2013.06.012] [PMID: 24079682]
[7]
Lane, A.N.; Fan, T.W.M.; Higashi, R.M. Metabolic acidosis and the importance of balanced equations. Metabolomics, 2008, 5, 163-165.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11306-008-0142-2]
[8]
Ipata, P.L.; Pesi, R. Metabolic interaction between purine nucleotide cycle and oxypurine cycle during skeletal muscle contraction of different intensities: a biochemical reappraisal. Metabolomics, 2018, 14(4), 42.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11306-018-1341-0] [PMID: 30830332]
[9]
Robergs, R.A.; Ghiasvand, F.; Parker, D. Biochemistry of exercise-induced metabolic acidosis. Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol., 2004, 287(3), 125-132.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpregu.00114.2004] [PMID: 15308499]
[10]
Berman, E.R. Biochemistry of the Eye; Plenum Press New York, 1991, pp. 201-209.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4757-9441-0_5]
[11]
Meyerhof, O. Die Energieumwandlungen im Muskel. Uber die Beziehungen der Milchsaure zur Warmebildung und Arbeitsleistung des Muskels in der Anaerobiose. Pflugers Arch. Gesamte Physiol. Menschen Tiere, 1920, 182, 232-283.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01723747]
[12]
Lowenstein, J.M.; Tornheim, K. Ammonia production in muscle. The purine nucleotide cycle. Science, 1971, 392-400.
[13]
Lowenstein, J.M. Ammonia production in muscle and other tissues: the purine nucleotide cycle. Physiol. Rev., 1972, 52(2), 382-414.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/physrev.1972.52.2.382] [PMID: 4260884]
[14]
Tornheim, K.; Lowenstein, J.M. The purine nucleotide cycle. The production of ammonia from aspartate by extracts of rat skeletal muscle. J. Biol. Chem., 1972, 247(1), 162-169.
[PMID: 5017762]
[15]
Cady, E.B.; Jones, D.A.; Lynn, J.; Newham, D.J. Changes in force and intracellular metabolites during fatigue of human skeletal muscle. J. Physiol., 1989, 418, 311-325.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/jphysiol.1989.sp017842] [PMID: 2621621]
[16]
Sahlin, K.; Palmskog, G.; Hultman, E. Adenine nucleotide and IMP contents of the quadriceps muscle in man after exercise. Pflugers Arch., 1978, 374(2), 193-198.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00581301] [PMID: 566428]
[17]
Norman, B.; Sollevi, A.; Kaijser, L.; Jansson, E. ATP breakdown products in human skeletal muscle during prolonged exercise to exhaustion. Clin. Physiol., 1987, 7(6), 503-510.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-097X.1987.tb00192.x] [PMID: 3427883]
[18]
Tullson, P.C.; Terjung, R.L. Adenine nucleotide degradation in striated muscle. Int. J. Sports Med., 1990, 11(Suppl. 2), S47-S55.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-2007-1024854] [PMID: 2193893]
[19]
Palmieri, F. The mitochondrial transporter family (SLC25): physiological and pathological implications. Pflugers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology, 2004, 247(5), 689-709.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00424-003-1099-7] [PMID: 14598172]
[20]
Passarella, S.; Atlante, A. Teaching the role of mitochondrial transport in energy metabolism. Biochem. Mol. Biol. Educ., 2007, 35(2), 125-132.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bmb.31] [PMID: 21591072]


open access plus

Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as

Article Details

VOLUME: 7
ISSUE: 1
Year: 2020
Published on: 05 September, 2020
Page: [6 - 10]
Pages: 5
DOI: 10.2174/2213235X07666190527100840

Article Metrics

PDF: 18
HTML: 2