Background: Sample preparation is crucially important for the capillary electrophoretic
measurement of the bioactive constituents in Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium because conventional
solvent extraction is time-consuming and the solvent peaks seriously interfere with the measured
Objective: The objective of the present study is to establish far infrared-assisted sample preparation
approaches for the analysis of Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium.
Methods: Synephrine and hesperidin in Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium were determined by capillary
electrophoresis in combination with far infrared-assisted sample extraction and solvent removal.
Results: The effects of detection potentials, irradiation times and the voltages applied to the infrared
generator were investigated to acquire the optimal assay conditions. Synephrine and hesperidin
could be well separated within 6 min at a separation voltage of 9 kV in an alkaline borate solution.
Satisfactory linearity was observed over the concentration range of 0.001 to 1 mM with the detection
limits of 0.43 and 0.52 μM for synephrine and hesperidin, respectively. The results exhibited
that far infrared irradiations could enhance the efficiencies of sample extraction and solvent removal
during the sample preparation of Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium. The extraction time was
significantly reduced to 6 min while the interference of the solvent peaks towards the electropherograms
Conclusion: Far infrared-accelerated extraction and solvent removal were employed in the capillary
electrophoretic determination of the bioactive constituents in Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium
with satisfactory results. The ease, simplicity, efficiency and low cost of the novel sample preparation
approaches indicate they may find a wide range of applications.