Pragmatic Analysis of Dyslipidemia Involvement in Coronary Artery Disease: A Narrative Review

Author(s): Romeo-Gabriel Mihăilă*

Journal Name: Current Cardiology Reviews

Volume 16 , Issue 1 , 2020

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Graphical Abstract:


Abstract:

Background: Dyslipidemia is the main factor involved in the occurrence and progression of coronary artery disease.

Objective: The research strategy is aimed at analyzing new data on the pathophysiology of dyslipidemia involvement in coronary artery disease, the modalities of atherogenic risk estimation and therapeutic advances.

Methods: Scientific articles published in PubMed from January 2017 to February 2018 were searched using the terms "dyslipidemia" and "ischemic heart disease".

Results: PCSK9 contributes to the increase in serum levels of low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and lipoprotein (a). The inflammation is involved in the progression of hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. Hypercholesterolemia changes the global cardiac gene expression profile and is thus involved in the increase of oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and apoptosis initiated by inflammation. Coronary artery calcifications may estimate the risk of coronary events. The cardioankle vascular index evaluates the arterial stiffness and correlates with subclinical coronary atherosclerosis. The carotid plaque score is superior to carotid intima-media thickness for risk stratification in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia and both can independently predict coronary artery disease. The lipoprotein (a) and familial hypercholesterolemia have a synergistic role in predicting the risk of early onset and severity of coronary atherosclerosis. A decrease in atherosclerotic coronary plaque progression can be achieved in patients with plasma LDL-cholesterol levels below 70 mg/dL. A highly durable RNA interference therapeutic inhibitor of PCSK9 synthesis could be a future solution.

Conclusion: The prophylaxis and treatment of coronary artery disease in a dyslipidemic patient should be based on a careful assessment of cardio-vascular risk factors and individual metabolic particularities, so it may be personalized.

Keywords: Cholesterol, coronary artery disease, dyslipidemia, proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9, statins, triglycerides.

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