A Comprehensive Review on Preclinical Diabetic Models

Author(s): Anshul Shakya*, Sushil Kumar Chaudary, Debapriya Garabadu, Hans Raj Bhat, Bibhuti Bhusan Kakoti, Surajit Kumar Ghosh

Journal Name: Current Diabetes Reviews

Volume 16 , Issue 2 , 2020

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Background: Preclinical experimental models historically play a critical role in the exploration and characterization of disease pathophysiology. Further, these in-vivo and in-vitro preclinical experiments help in target identification, evaluation of novel therapeutic agents and validation of treatments.

Introduction: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a multifaceted metabolic disorder of multidimensional aetiologies with the cardinal feature of chronic hyperglycemia. To avoid or minimize late complications of diabetes and related costs, primary prevention and early treatment are therefore necessary. Due to its chronic manifestations, new treatment strategies need to be developed, because of the limited effectiveness of the current therapies.

Methods: The study included electronic databases such as Pubmed, Web of Science and Scopus. The datasets were searched for entries of studies up to June, 2018.

Results: A large number of in-vivo and in-vitro models have been presented for evaluating the mechanism of anti-hyperglycaemic effect of drugs in hormone-, chemically-, pathogen-induced animal models of diabetes mellitus. The advantages and limitations of each model have also been addressed in this review.

Conclusion: This review encompasses the wide pathophysiological and molecular mechanisms associated with diabetes, particularly focusing on the challenges associated with the evaluation and predictive validation of these models as ideal animal models for preclinical assessments and discovering new drugs and therapeutic agents for translational application in humans. This review may further contribute to discover a novel drug to treat diabetes more efficaciously with minimum or no side effects. Furthermore, it also highlights ongoing research and considers the future perspectives in the field of diabetes.

Keywords: Hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus, animal model, streptozotocin, in-vivo, in-vitro.

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Year: 2020
Published on: 09 May, 2019
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