The article represents literature review dedicated to molecular and cellular mechanisms
underlying clinical manifestations and outcomes of acute myocardial infarction. Extracellular
matrix adaptive changes are described in detail as one of the most important factors contributing
to healing of damaged myocardium and post-infarction cardiac remodeling. Extracellular
matrix is reviewed as dynamic constantly remodeling structure that plays a pivotal role in
myocardial repair. The role of matrix metalloproteinases and their tissue inhibitors in fragmentation
and degradation of extracellular matrix as well as in myocardium healing is discussed. This
review provides current information about fibroblasts activity, the role of growth factors, particularly
transforming growth factor β and cardiotrophin-1, colony-stimulating factors, adipokines
and gastrointestinal hormones, various matricellular proteins. In conclusion considering the
fact that dynamic transformation of extracellular matrix after myocardial ischemic damage plays
a pivotal role in myocardial infarction outcomes and prognosis, we suggest a high importance of
further investigation of mechanisms underlying extracellular matrix remodeling and cell-matrix
interactions in cardiovascular diseases.
Keywords: Myocardial infarction, cardiac remodeling, ECM, cytokines, matricellular proteins, cellular mechanisms.
Tecimer ME, Yuksel A, Bicer M, et al. The role of cardiotrophin-1 in the evaluation of myocardial ischemia in patients undergoing off-pump and on-pump coronary artery bypass surgery. Scientific Pages Heart 2016; 1(1): 14-20.
D’Amario D, Leone AM, Cannata F, et al. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in patients with a large anterior wall acute myocardial infarction to prevent left ventricular remodeling (the RIGENERA trial): 10 years follow-up - Final results. European Heart Journal 38(1)2017
Cleutjens J, Huynen F, Smits J, et al. Thrombospondin-2 deficiency in mice results in cardiac rupture early after myocardial infarction. Circ Res 1999; 100: 156.
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