Cardiovascular Disease in Spondyloarthritides

Author(s): Charalampos Papagoras, Paraskevi V. Voulgari, Alexandros A. Drosos*

Journal Name: Current Vascular Pharmacology

Volume 18 , Issue 5 , 2020


Become EABM
Become Reviewer
Call for Editor

Graphical Abstract:


Abstract:

The spondyloarthritides are a group of chronic systemic inflammatory joint diseases, the main types being ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA). Evidence accumulating during the last decades suggests that patients with AS or PsA carry an increased risk for cardiovascular disease and cardiovascular death. This risk appears to be mediated by systemic inflammation over and above classical cardiovascular risk factors. The excess cardiovascular risk in those patients has been formally acknowledged by scientific organizations, which have called physicians’ attention to the matter. The application by Rheumatologists of new effective anti-rheumatic treatments and treat-to-target strategies seems to benefit patients from a cardiovascular point of view, as well. However, more data are needed in order to verify whether anti-rheumatic treatments do have an effect on cardiovascular risk and whether there are differences among them in this regard. Most importantly, a higher level of awareness of the cardiovascular risk is needed among patients and healthcare providers, better tools to recognize at-risk patients and, ultimately, commitment to address in parallel both the musculoskeletal and the cardiovascular aspect of the disease.

Keywords: Ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatic arthritis, spondyloarthritis, cardiovascular disease, dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome, tumor necrosis factor α inhibitors.

[1]
Baraliakos X, Braun J. Spondyloarthritides. Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol 2011; 25(6): 825-42.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.berh.2011.11.006 ] [PMID: 22265264]
[2]
Alamanos Y, Papadopoulos NG, Voulgari PV, Karakatsanis A, Siozos C, Drosos AA. Epidemiology of ankylosing spondylitis in Northwest Greece, 1983-2002. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2004; 43(5): 615-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/rheumatology/keh133 ] [PMID: 14872102]
[3]
Alamanos Y, Papadopoulos NG, Voulgari PV, et al. Epidemiology of psoriatic arthritis in northwest Greece, 1982-2001. J Rheumatol 2003; 30(12): 2641-4.
[PMID: 14719208]
[4]
Alamanos Y, Voulgari PV, Drosos AA. Incidence and prevalence of psoriatic arthritis: a systematic review. J Rheumatol 2008; 35(7): 1354-8.
[PMID: 18464305]
[5]
Migkos MP, Somarakis G-P, Markatseli TE, Voulgari PV, Drosos AA. Epidemiological characteristics of psoriatic arthritis. Clin Exp Rheumatol 2019; 37(2): 324-32.
[PMID: 30299245]
[6]
Asquith M, Rosenbaum JT. The interaction between host genetics and the microbiome in the pathogenesis of spondyloarthropathies. Curr Opin Rheumatol 2016; 28(4): 405-12.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BOR.0000000000000299 ] [PMID: 27152700]
[7]
Brown MA, Kenna T, Wordsworth BP. Genetics of ankylosing spondylitis--insights into pathogenesis. Nat Rev Rheumatol 2016; 12(2): 81-91.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nrrheum.2015.133 ] [PMID: 26439405]
[8]
Bowes J, Ashcroft J, Dand N, et al. Cross-phenotype association mapping of the MHC identifies genetic variants that differentiate psoriatic arthritis from psoriasis. Ann Rheum Dis 2017; 76(10): 1774-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/annrheumdis-2017-211414 ] [PMID: 28821532]
[9]
Calabresi E, Monti S, Governato G, Carli L. One year in review 2018: psoriatic arthritis. Clin Exp Rheumatol 2019; 37(2): 167-78.
[PMID: 30900548]
[10]
Kehl AS, Corr M, Weisman MH. Enthesitis: new insights into pathogenesis, diagnostic modalities, and treatment. Arthritis Rheumatol 2016; 68(2): 312-22.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/art.39458 ] [PMID: 26473401]
[11]
Schett G, Lories RJ, D’Agostino MA, et al. Enthesitis: from pathophysiology to treatment. Nat Rev Rheumatol 2017; 13(12): 731-41.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nrrheum.2017.188 ] [PMID: 29158573]
[12]
Sieper J, Appel H, Braun J, Rudwaleit M. Critical appraisal of assessment of structural damage in ankylosing spondylitis: implications for treatment outcomes. Arthritis Rheum 2008; 58(3): 649-56.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/art.23260 ] [PMID: 18311819]
[13]
Taurog JD, Chhabra A, Colbert RA. Ankylosing spondylitis and axial spondyloarthritis. N Engl J Med 2016; 374(26): 2563-74.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMra1406182 ] [PMID: 27355535]
[14]
Ritchlin CT, Colbert RA, Gladman DD. Psoriatic arthritis. N Engl J Med 2017; 376(10): 957-70.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMra1505557 ] [PMID: 28273019]
[15]
McGonagle D, Lories RJU, Tan AL, Benjamin M. The concept of a “synovio-entheseal complex” and its implications for understanding joint inflammation and damage in psoriatic arthritis and beyond. Arthritis Rheum 2007; 56(8): 2482-91.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/art.22758 ] [PMID: 17665450]
[16]
Bengtsson K, Forsblad-d’Elia H, Lie E, et al. Risk of cardiac rhythm disturbances and aortic regurgitation in different spondyloarthritis subtypes in comparison with general population: a register-based study from Sweden. Ann Rheum Dis 2018; 77(4): 541-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/annrheumdis-2017-212189 ] [PMID: 29259045]
[17]
Braun J, Krüger K, Manger B, Schneider M, Specker C, Trappe HJ. Cardiovascular comorbidity in inflammatory rheumatological conditions. Dtsch Arztebl Int 2017; 114(12): 197-203.
[PMID: 28407841]
[18]
Levy AR, Szabo SM, Rao SR, Cifaldi M, Maksymowych WP. Estimating the occurrence of renal complications among persons with ankylosing spondylitis. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) 2014; 66(3): 440-5.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/acr.22176 ] [PMID: 24106183]
[19]
Radford EP, Doll R, Smith PG. Mortality among patients with ankylosing spondylitis not given X-ray therapy. N Engl J Med 1977; 297(11): 572-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJM197709152971103 ] [PMID: 887115]
[20]
Kaprove RE, Little AH, Graham DC, Rosen PS. Ankylosing spondylitis: survival in men with and without radiotherapy. Arthritis Rheum 1980; 23(1): 57-61.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/art.1780230110 ] [PMID: 7352944]
[21]
Khan MA, Khan MK, Kushner I. Survival among patients with ankylosing spondylitis: a life-table analysis. J Rheumatol 1981; 8(1): 86-90.
[PMID: 7218263]
[22]
Lehtinen K. Mortality and causes of death in 398 patients admitted to hospital with ankylosing spondylitis. Ann Rheum Dis 1993; 52(3): 174-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/ard.52.3.174 ] [PMID: 8484668]
[23]
Bakland G, Gran JT, Nossent JC. Increased mortality in ankylosing spondylitis is related to disease activity. Ann Rheum Dis 2011; 70(11): 1921-5.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/ard.2011.151191 ] [PMID: 21784726]
[24]
Haroon NN, Paterson JM, Li P, Inman RD, Haroon N. Patients with ankylosing spondylitis have increased cardiovascular and cerebrovascular mortality: a population-based study. Ann Intern Med 2015; 163(6): 409-16.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.7326/M14-2470 ] [PMID: 26258401]
[25]
Han C, Robinson DW Jr, Hackett MV, Paramore LC, Fraeman KH, Bala MV. Cardiovascular disease and risk factors in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis. J Rheumatol 2006; 33(11): 2167-72.
[PMID: 16981296]
[26]
Peters MJL, Visman I, Nielen MMJ, et al. Ankylosing spondylitis: a risk factor for myocardial infarction? Ann Rheum Dis 2010; 69(3): 579-81.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/ard.2009.110593 ] [PMID: 19403516]
[27]
Kang JH, Chen YH, Lin HC. Comorbidity profiles among patients with ankylosing spondylitis: a nationwide population-based study. Ann Rheum Dis 2010; 69(6): 1165-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/ard.2009.116178 ] [PMID: 20375121]
[28]
Szabo SM, Levy AR, Rao SR, et al. Increased risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases in individuals with ankylosing spondylitis: a population-based study. Arthritis Rheum 2011; 63(11): 3294-304.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/art.30581 ] [PMID: 21834064]
[29]
Bremander A, Petersson IF, Bergman S, Englund M. Population-based estimates of common comorbidities and cardiovascular disease in ankylosing spondylitis. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) 2011; 63(4): 550-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/acr.20408 ] [PMID: 21452267]
[30]
Huang Y-P, Wang Y-H, Pan S-L. Increased risk of ischemic heart disease in young patients with newly diagnosed ankylosing spondylitis--a population-based longitudinal follow-up study. PLoS One 2013; 8(5)e64155
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0064155 ] [PMID: 23691161]
[31]
Chou C-H, Lin M-C, Peng C-L, et al. A nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study: increased risk of acute coronary syndrome in patients with ankylosing spondylitis. Scand J Rheumatol 2014; 43(2): 132-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/03009742.2013.822097 ] [PMID: 24134400]
[32]
Keller JJ, Hsu J-L, Lin S-M, et al. Increased risk of stroke among patients with ankylosing spondylitis: a population-based matched-cohort study. Rheumatol Int 2014; 34(2): 255-63.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00296-013-2912-z ] [PMID: 24322454]
[33]
Wright KA, Crowson CS, Michet CJ, Matteson EL. Time trends in incidence, clinical features, and cardiovascular disease in ankylosing spondylitis over three decades: a population-based study. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) 2015; 67(6): 836-41.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/acr.22512 ] [PMID: 25384671]
[34]
Eriksson JK, Jacobsson L, Bengtsson K, Askling J. Is ankylosing spondylitis a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and how do these risks compare with those in rheumatoid arthritis? Ann Rheum Dis 2017; 76(2): 364-70.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/annrheumdis-2016-209315 ] [PMID: 27283333]
[35]
Martín-Martínez MA, Castañeda S, González-Juanatey C, et al. Incidence of first cardiovascular event in Spanish patients with inflammatory rheumatic diseases: prospective data from the CARMA project. Clin Exp Rheumatol 2019; 76(2): 139.
[36]
Bengtsson K, Forsblad-d’Elia H, Lie E, et al. Are ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatic arthritis and undifferentiated spondyloarthritis associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events? A prospective nationwide population-based cohort study. Arthritis Res Ther 2017; 19(1): 102.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13075-017-1315-z ] [PMID: 28521824]
[37]
Park CJ, Choi YJ, Kim JG, et al. Association of Acute Myocardial Infarction with ankylosing Spondylitis: A nationwide longitudinal cohort study. J Clin Neurosci 2018; 56(56): 34-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jocn.2018.08.008 ] [PMID: 30131197]
[38]
Mathieu S, Soubrier M. Cardiovascular events in ankylosing spondylitis: a 2018 meta-analysis. Ann Rheum Dis 2018; 467(7319): 1061-73.
[PMID: 29523520]
[39]
Moon I, Choi EK, Jung JH, et al. Ankylosing spondylitis: A novel risk factor for atrial fibrillation - A nationwide population-based study. Int J Cardiol 2019; 275: 77-82.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2018.10.024 ] [PMID: 30360993]
[40]
Lautermann D, Braun J. Ankylosing spondylitis--cardiac manifestations. Clin Exp Rheumatol 2002; 20(6)(Suppl. 28): S11-5.
[PMID: 12463440]
[41]
Wong K, Gladman DD, Husted J, Long JA, Farewell VT. Mortality studies in psoriatic arthritis: results from a single outpatient clinic. I. Causes and risk of death. Arthritis Rheum 1997; 40(10): 1868-72.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/art.1780401021 ] [PMID: 9336423]
[42]
Ali Y, Tom BDM, Schentag CT, Farewell VT, Gladman DD. Improved survival in psoriatic arthritis with calendar time. Arthritis Rheum 2007; 56(8): 2708-14.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/art.22800 ] [PMID: 17665458]
[43]
Ahlehoff O, Gislason GH, Charlot M, et al. Psoriasis is associated with clinically significant cardiovascular risk: a Danish nationwide cohort study. J Intern Med 2011; 270(2): 147-57.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2796.2010.02310.x ] [PMID: 21114692]
[44]
Juneblad K, Rantapää-Dahlqvist S, Alenius G-M. Disease activity and increased risk of cardiovascular death among patients with psoriatic arthritis. J Rheumatol 2016; 43(12): 2155-61.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3899/jrheum.160070 ] [PMID: 27909142]
[45]
Skov L, Thomsen SF, Kristensen LE, Dodge R, Hedegaard MS, Kjellberg J. Cause-specific mortality in patients with psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. Br J Dermatol 2019; 180(1): 100-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjd.16919 ] [PMID: 29947129]
[46]
Mok CC, Kwok CL, Ho LY, Chan PT, Yip SF. Life expectancy, standardized mortality ratios, and causes of death in six rheumatic diseases in Hong Kong, China. Arthritis Rheum 2011; 63(5): 1182-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/art.30277 ] [PMID: 21391198]
[47]
Buckley C, Cavill C, Taylor G, et al. Mortality in psoriatic arthritis - a single-center study from the UK. J Rheumatol 2010; 37(10): 2141-4.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3899/jrheum.100034 ] [PMID: 20682670]
[48]
Ogdie A, Haynes K, Troxel AB, et al. Risk of mortality in patients with psoriatic arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and psoriasis: a longitudinal cohort study. Ann Rheum Dis 2014; 73(1): 149-53.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/annrheumdis-2012-202424 ] [PMID: 23264338]
[49]
Ogdie A, Maliha S, Shin D, et al. Cause-specific mortality in patients with psoriatic arthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2017; 56(6): 907-11.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/rheumatology/kew502 ] [PMID: 28158384]
[50]
Shbeeb M, Uramoto KM, Gibson LE, O’Fallon WM, Gabriel SE. The epidemiology of psoriatic arthritis in Olmsted County, Minnesota, USA, 1982-1991. J Rheumatol 2000; 27(5): 1247-50.
[PMID: 10813295]
[51]
Gladman DD, Ang M, Su L, Tom BDM, Schentag CT, Farewell VT. Cardiovascular morbidity in psoriatic arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 2009; 68(7): 1131-5.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/ard.2008.094839 ] [PMID: 18697777]
[52]
Horreau C, Pouplard C, Brenaut E, et al. Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis: a systematic literature review. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2013; 27(Suppl. 3): 12-29.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jdv.12163 ] [PMID: 23845149]
[53]
Gulati AM, Semb AG, Rollefstad S, et al. On the HUNT for cardiovascular risk factors and disease in patients with psoriatic arthritis: population-based data from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study. Ann Rheum Dis 2016; 75(5): 819-24.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/annrheumdis-2014-206824 ] [PMID: 25814652]
[54]
Egeberg A, Thyssen JP, Jensen P, Gislason GH, Skov L. Risk of myocardial infarction in patients with psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis: A nationwide cohort study. Acta Derm Venereol 2017; 97(7): 819-24.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2340/00015555-2657 ] [PMID: 28350413]
[55]
Kaine J, Song X, Kim G, Hur P, Palmer JB. Higher incidence rates of comorbidities in patients with psoriatic arthritis compared with the general population using US administrative claims data. J Manag Care Spec Pharm 2019; 25(1): 122-32.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.18553/jmcp.2018.17421 ] [PMID: 29694270]
[56]
Charlton R, Green A, Shaddick G, et al. PROMPT study group. Risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in an incident cohort of people with psoriatic arthritis: a population-based cohort study. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2019; 58(1): 144-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/rheumatology/key286 ] [PMID: 30202906]
[57]
Polachek A, Touma Z, Anderson M, Eder L. Risk of cardiovascular morbidity in patients with psoriatic arthritis: a meta-analysis of observational studies. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) 2017; 69(1): 67-74.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/acr.22926 ] [PMID: 27111228]
[58]
Videm V, Cortes A, Thomas R, Brown MA. Current smoking is associated with incident ankylosing spondylitis - the HUNT population-based Norwegian health study. J Rheumatol 2014; 41(10): 2041-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3899/jrheum.140353 ] [PMID: 25128509]
[59]
Villaverde-García V, Cobo-Ibáñez T, Candelas-Rodríguez G, et al. The effect of smoking on clinical and structural damage in patients with axial spondyloarthritis: A systematic literature review. Semin Arthritis Rheum 2017; 46(5): 569-83.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.semarthrit.2016.11.004 ] [PMID: 27979416]
[60]
Li W, Han J, Qureshi AA. Smoking and risk of incident psoriatic arthritis in US women. Ann Rheum Dis 2012; 71(6): 804-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/annrheumdis-2011-200416 ] [PMID: 22067198]
[61]
Eder L, Shanmugarajah S, Thavaneswaran A, et al. The association between smoking and the development of psoriatic arthritis among psoriasis patients. Ann Rheum Dis 2012; 71(2): 219-24.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/ard.2010.147793 ] [PMID: 21953342]
[62]
Nguyen UDT, Zhang Y, Lu N, et al. Smoking paradox in the development of psoriatic arthritis among patients with psoriasis: a population-based study. Ann Rheum Dis 2018; 77(1): 119-23.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/annrheumdis-2017-211625 ] [PMID: 29102956]
[63]
Bremander A, Jacobsson LTH, Bergman S, Haglund E, Löfvendahl S, Petersson IF. Smoking is associated with a worse self-reported health status in patients with psoriatic arthritis: data from a Swedish population-based cohort. Clin Rheumatol 2015; 34(3): 579-83.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10067-014-2742-8 ] [PMID: 25024097]
[64]
Glintborg B, Højgaard P, Lund Hetland M, et al. Impact of tobacco smoking on response to tumour necrosis factor-alpha inhibitor treatment in patients with ankylosing spondylitis: results from the Danish nationwide DANBIO registry. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2016; 55(4): 659-68.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/rheumatology/kev392 ] [PMID: 26628579]
[65]
Højgaard P, Glintborg B, Hetland ML, et al. Association between tobacco smoking and response to tumour necrosis factor α inhibitor treatment in psoriatic arthritis: results from the DANBIO registry. Ann Rheum Dis 2015; 74(12): 2130-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/annrheumdis-2014-205389 ] [PMID: 25063827]
[66]
Jamnitski A, Symmons D, Peters MJL, Sattar N, McInnes I, Nurmohamed MT. Cardiovascular comorbidities in patients with psoriatic arthritis: a systematic review. Ann Rheum Dis 2013; 72(2): 211-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/annrheumdis-2011-201194 ] [PMID: 22532629]
[67]
Eder L, Abji F, Rosen CF, Chandran V, Gladman DD. The association between obesity and clinical features of psoriatic arthritis: a case-control study. J Rheumatol 2017; 44(4): 437-43.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3899/jrheum.160532 ] [PMID: 28202737]
[68]
Mathieu S, Gossec L, Dougados M, Soubrier M. Cardiovascular profile in ankylosing spondylitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) 2011; 63(4): 557-63.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/acr.20364 ] [PMID: 20890982]
[69]
Papagoras C, Markatseli TE, Saougou I, et al. Cardiovascular risk profile in patients with spondyloarthritis. Joint Bone Spine 2014; 81(1): 57-63.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbspin.2013.03.019 ] [PMID: 23731637]
[70]
Love TJ, Zhu Y, Zhang Y, et al. Obesity and the risk of psoriatic arthritis: a population-based study. Ann Rheum Dis 2012; 71(8): 1273-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/annrheumdis-2012-201299 ] [PMID: 22586165]
[71]
Li W, Han J, Qureshi AA. Obesity and risk of incident psoriatic arthritis in US women. Ann Rheum Dis 2012; 71(8): 1267-72.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/annrheumdis-2011-201273 ] [PMID: 22562978]
[72]
Jacques P, McGonagle D. The role of mechanical stress in the pathogenesis of spondyloarthritis and how to combat it. Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol 2014; 28(5): 703-10.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.berh.2014.10.009 ] [PMID: 25488779]
[73]
Ahmed N, Prior JA, Chen Y, Hayward R, Mallen CD, Hider SL. Prevalence of cardiovascular-related comorbidity in ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatic arthritis and psoriasis in primary care: a matched retrospective cohort study. Clin Rheumatol 2016; 35(12): 3069-73.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10067-016-3362-2 ] [PMID: 27485152]
[74]
Wibetoe G, Ikdahl E, Rollefstad S, et al. Cardiovascular disease risk profiles in inflammatory joint disease entities. Arthritis Res Ther 2017; 19(1): 153.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13075-017-1358-1 ] [PMID: 28673314]
[75]
Husted JA, Thavaneswaran A, Chandran V, et al. Cardiovascular and other comorbidities in patients with psoriatic arthritis: a comparison with patients with psoriasis. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) 2011; 63(12): 1729-35.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/acr.20627 ] [PMID: 21905258]
[76]
Panoulas VF, Metsios GS, Pace AV, et al. Hypertension in rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2008; 47(9): 1286-98.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/rheumatology/ken159 ] [PMID: 18467370]
[77]
Lovell AR, Ernst ME. Drug-Induced Hypertension: Focus on Mechanisms and Management. Curr Hypertens Rep 2017; 19(5): 39.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11906-017-0736-z ] [PMID: 28451850]
[78]
Kaltwasser JP, Nash P, Gladman D, et al. Treatment of Psoriatic Arthritis Study Group. Efficacy and safety of leflunomide in the treatment of psoriatic arthritis and psoriasis: a multinational, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Arthritis Rheum 2004; 50(6): 1939-50.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/art.20253 ] [PMID: 15188371]
[79]
Papagoras C, Voulgari PV, Drosos AA. Atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease in the spondyloarthritides, particularly ankylosing spondylitis and psoriatic arthritis. Clin Exp Rheumatol 2013; 31(4): 612-20.
[PMID: 23406817]
[80]
Shrestha A, Bahce-Altuntas A, Mowrey W, Broder A. Active peripheral inflammation is associated with pro-atherogenic lipid profile in psoriatic arthritis. Semin Arthritis Rheum 2016; 46(3): 286-90.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.semarthrit.2016.05.011 ] [PMID: 27373499]
[81]
Johnsson H, Panarelli M, Cameron A, Sattar N. Analysis and modelling of cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol changes across the range of C-reactive protein levels in clinical practice as an aid to better understanding of inflammation-lipid interactions. Ann Rheum Dis 2014; 73(8): 1495-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/annrheumdis-2013-203293 ] [PMID: 23716069]
[82]
Myasoedova E, Crowson CS, Kremers HM, et al. Lipid paradox in rheumatoid arthritis: the impact of serum lipid measures and systemic inflammation on the risk of cardiovascular disease. Ann Rheum Dis 2011; 70(3): 482-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/ard.2010.135871 ] [PMID: 21216812]
[83]
Robertson J, Peters MJ, McInnes IB, Sattar N. Changes in lipid levels with inflammation and therapy in RA: a maturing paradigm. Nat Rev Rheumatol 2013; 9(9): 513-23.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nrrheum.2013.91 ] [PMID: 23774906]
[84]
Georgiadis AN, Papavasiliou EC, Lourida ES, et al. Atherogenic lipid profile is a feature characteristic of patients with early rheumatoid arthritis: effect of early treatment--a prospective, controlled study. Arthritis Res Ther 2006; 8(3): R82.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/ar1952 ] [PMID: 16646989]
[85]
Georgiadis AN, Voulgari PV, Argyropoulou MI, et al. Early treatment reduces the cardiovascular risk factors in newly diagnosed rheumatoid arthritis patients. Semin Arthritis Rheum 2008; 38(1): 13-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.semarthrit.2007.09.008 ] [PMID: 18191989]
[86]
Khovidhunkit W, Kim M-S, Memon RA, et al. Effects of infection and inflammation on lipid and lipoprotein metabolism: mechanisms and consequences to the host. J Lipid Res 2004; 45(7): 1169-96.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1194/jlr.R300019-JLR200 ] [PMID: 15102878]
[87]
Hahn BH, Grossman J, Ansell BJ, Skaggs BJ, McMahon M. Altered lipoprotein metabolism in chronic inflammatory states: proinflammatory high-density lipoprotein and accelerated atherosclerosis in systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Res Ther 2008; 10(4): 213.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/ar2471 ] [PMID: 18828865]
[88]
Charles-Schoeman C, Watanabe J, Lee YY, et al. Abnormal function of high-density lipoprotein is associated with poor disease control and an altered protein cargo in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 2009; 60(10): 2870-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/art.24802 ] [PMID: 19790070]
[89]
Charles-Schoeman C, Lee YY, Grijalva V, et al. Cholesterol efflux by high density lipoproteins is impaired in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 2012; 71(7): 1157-62.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/annrheumdis-2011-200493 ] [PMID: 22267330]
[90]
Lourida ES, Georgiadis AN, Papavasiliou EC, Papathanasiou AI, Drosos AA, Tselepis AD. Patients with early rheumatoid arthritis exhibit elevated autoantibody titers against mildly oxidized low-density lipoprotein and exhibit decreased activity of the lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2. Arthritis Res Ther 2007; 9(1): R19.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/ar2129 ] [PMID: 17326817]
[91]
Jones SM, Harris CP, Lloyd J, Stirling CA, Reckless JP, McHugh NJ. Lipoproteins and their subfractions in psoriatic arthritis: identification of an atherogenic profile with active joint disease. Ann Rheum Dis 2000; 59(11): 904-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/ard.59.11.904 ] [PMID: 11053070]
[92]
Gentile M, Peluso R, Di Minno MND, et al. Association between small dense LDL and sub-clinical atherosclerosis in patients with psoriatic arthritis. Clin Rheumatol 2016; 35(8): 2023-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10067-016-3344-4 ] [PMID: 27411815]
[93]
Husni ME, Wilson Tang WH, Lucke M, Chandrasekharan UM, Brennan DM, Hazen SL. Correlation of high-density lipoprotein-associated paraoxonase 1 activity with systemic inflammation, disease activity, and cardiovascular risk factors in psoriatic disease. Arthritis Rheumatol 2018; 70(8): 1240-50.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/art.40499 ] [PMID: 29569857]
[94]
Schulte DM, Paulsen K, Türk K, et al. Small dense LDL cholesterol in human subjects with different chronic inflammatory diseases. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2018; 28(11): 1100-5.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.numecd.2018.06.022 ] [PMID: 30143407]
[95]
Olama SM, Elarman MM. Evaluation of paraoxonase and arylesterase activities in Egyptian patients with ankylosing spondylitis. Rheumatol Int 2013; 33(6): 1487-94.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00296-012-2591-1 ] [PMID: 23239038]
[96]
Gkolfinopoulou C, Stratikos E, Theofilatos D, et al. Impaired antiatherogenic functions of high-density lipoprotein in patients with ankylosing spondylitis. J Rheumatol 2015; 42(9): 1652-60.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3899/jrheum.141532 ] [PMID: 26233507]
[97]
Grundy SM. Metabolic syndrome update. Trends Cardiovasc Med 2016; 26(4): 364-73.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tcm.2015.10.004 ] [PMID: 26654259]
[98]
Mok CC, Ko GTC, Ho LY, Yu KL, Chan PT, To CH. Prevalence of atherosclerotic risk factors and the metabolic syndrome in patients with chronic inflammatory arthritis. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) 2011; 63(2): 195-202.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/acr.20363 ] [PMID: 20890981]
[99]
Labitigan M, Bahče-Altuntas A, Kremer JM, et al. Higher rates and clustering of abnormal lipids, obesity, and diabetes mellitus in psoriatic arthritis compared with rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) 2014; 66(4): 600-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/acr.22185 ] [PMID: 24115739]
[100]
Haroon M, Gallagher P, Heffernan E, FitzGerald O. High prevalence of metabolic syndrome and of insulin resistance in psoriatic arthritis is associated with the severity of underlying disease. J Rheumatol 2014; 41(7): 1357-65.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3899/jrheum.140021 ] [PMID: 24931949]
[101]
Papadakis JA, Sidiropoulos PI, Karvounaris SA, et al. High prevalence of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk factors in men with ankylosing spondylitis on anti-TNFalpha treatment: correlation with disease activity. Clin Exp Rheumatol 2009; 27(2): 292-8.
[PMID: 19473571]
[102]
Arida A, Protogerou AD, Kitas GD, Sfikakis PP. Systemic inflammatory response and atherosclerosis: the paradigm of chronic inflammatory rheumatic diseases. Int J Mol Sci 2018; 19(7)E1890
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms19071890 ] [PMID: 29954107]
[103]
Beinsberger J, Heemskerk JWM, Cosemans JMEM. Chronic arthritis and cardiovascular disease: altered blood parameters give rise to a prothrombotic propensity. Semin Arthritis Rheum 2014; 44(3): 345-52.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.semarthrit.2014.06.006 ] [PMID: 25077842]
[104]
Derdemezis CS, Voulgari PV, Drosos AA, Kiortsis DN. Obesity, adipose tissue and rheumatoid arthritis: coincidence or more complex relationship? Clin Exp Rheumatol 2011; 29(4): 712-27.
[PMID: 21640051]
[105]
Syrbe U, Callhoff J, Conrad K, et al. Serum adipokine levels in patients with ankylosing spondylitis and their relationship to clinical parameters and radiographic spinal progression. Arthritis Rheumatol 2015; 67(3): 678-85.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/art.38968 ] [PMID: 25417763]
[106]
Neumann E, Frommer KW, Vasile M, Müller-Ladner U. Adipocytokines as driving forces in rheumatoid arthritis and related inflammatory diseases? Arthritis Rheum 2011; 63(5): 1159-69.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/art.30291 ] [PMID: 21337317]
[107]
Eder L, Jayakar J, Pollock R, et al. Serum adipokines in patients with psoriatic arthritis and psoriasis alone and their correlation with disease activity. Ann Rheum Dis 2013; 72(12): 1956-61.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/annrheumdis-2012-202325 ] [PMID: 23243196]
[108]
Mankia K, Emery P. Preclinical rheumatoid arthritis: progress toward prevention. Arthritis Rheumatol 2016; 68(4): 779-88.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/art.39603 ] [PMID: 26814677]
[109]
Eder L, Polachek A, Rosen CF, Chandran V, Cook R, Gladman DD. The development of psoriatic arthritis in patients with psoriasis is preceded by a period of nonspecific musculoskeletal symptoms: a prospective cohort study. Arthritis Rheumatol 2017; 69(3): 622-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/art.39973 ] [PMID: 27792862]
[110]
van Halm VP, Nielen MMJ, Nurmohamed MT, et al. Lipids and inflammation: serial measurements of the lipid profile of blood donors who later developed rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 2007; 66(2): 184-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/ard.2006.051672 ] [PMID: 16760255]
[111]
Myasoedova E, Crowson CS, Kremers HM, Fitz-Gibbon PD, Therneau TM, Gabriel SE. Total cholesterol and LDL levels decrease before rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 2010; 69(7): 1310-4.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/ard.2009.122374 ] [PMID: 19854708]
[112]
Gulati AM, Salvesen Ø, Thomsen RS, et al. Change in cardiovascular risk factors in patients who develop psoriatic arthritis: longitudinal data from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT). RMD Open 2018; 4(1)e000630
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/rmdopen-2017-000630 ] [PMID: 29556420]
[113]
Gelfand JM, Neimann AL, Shin DB, Wang X, Margolis DJ, Troxel AB. Risk of myocardial infarction in patients with psoriasis. JAMA 2006; 296(14): 1735-41.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.296.14.1735 ] [PMID: 17032986]
[114]
Dattilo G, Imbalzano E, Casale M, et al. Psoriasis and cardiovascular risk: Correlation between psoriasis and cardiovascular functional indices. Angiology 2018; 69(1): 31-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0003319717699329 ] [PMID: 29212353]
[115]
Dattilo G, Imbalzano E, Lamari A, et al. Ischemic heart disease and early diagnosis. Study on the predictive value of 2D strain. Int J Cardiol 2016; 215: 150-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2016.04.035 ] [PMID: 27111182]
[116]
Dattilo G, Borgia F, Guarneri C, et al. Cardiovascular risk in psoriasis: current state of the art. Curr Vasc Pharmacol 2019; 17(1): 85-91.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1570161115666171116163816 ] [PMID: 29149819]
[117]
Imbalzano E, Casale M, D’Angelo M, et al. Cardiovascular risk and psoriasis: a role in clinical cardiology? Angiology 2015; 66(2): 101-3.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0003319714527339 ] [PMID: 24671131]
[118]
Szentpetery A, Healy GM, Brady D, et al. Higher coronary plaque burden in psoriatic arthritis is independent of metabolic syndrome and associated with underlying disease severity. Arthritis Rheumatol 2018; 70(3): 396-407.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/art.40389 ] [PMID: 29193860]
[119]
Rueda-Gotor J, Corrales A, Blanco R, et al. Atherosclerotic disease in axial spondyloarthritis: increased frequency of carotid plaques. Clin Exp Rheumatol 2015; 33(3): 315-20.
[PMID: 26005760]
[120]
Giollo A, Dalbeni A, Cioffi G, et al. Factors associated with accelerated subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with spondyloarthritis without overt cardiovascular disease. Clin Rheumatol 2017; 36(11): 2487-95.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10067-017-3786-3 ] [PMID: 28889188]
[121]
Eder L, Thavaneswaran A, Chandran V, Cook R, Gladman DD. Increased burden of inflammation over time is associated with the extent of atherosclerotic plaques in patients with psoriatic arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 2015; 74(10): 1830-5.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/annrheumdis-2014-205267 ] [PMID: 24827532]
[122]
Vinker Shuster M, Gendelman O, Tiosano S, Comaneshter D, Cohen AD, Amital H. Ischemic heart disease and ankylosing spondylitis-assessing the role of inflammation. Clin Rheumatol 2018; 37(4): 1053-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10067-018-4037-y ] [PMID: 29473098]
[123]
Khaddaj Mallat R, Mathew John C, Kendrick DJ, Braun AP. The vascular endothelium: A regulator of arterial tone and interface for the immune system. Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci 2017; 54(7-8): 458-70.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408363.2017.1394267 ] [PMID: 29084470]
[124]
Wang D, Wang Z, Zhang L, Wang Y. Roles of cells from the arterial vessel wall in atherosclerosis. Mediators Inflamm 2017; 20178135934
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2017/8135934 ] [PMID: 28680196]
[125]
Steyers CM III, Miller FJ Jr. Endothelial dysfunction in chronic inflammatory diseases. Int J Mol Sci 2014; 15(7): 11324-49.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms150711324 ] [PMID: 24968272]
[126]
Bordy R, Totoson P, Prati C, Marie C, Wendling D, Demougeot C. Microvascular endothelial dysfunction in rheumatoid arthritis. Nat Rev Rheumatol 2018; 14(7): 404-20.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41584-018-0022-8 ] [PMID: 29855620]
[127]
Bodnár N, Kerekes G, Seres I, et al. Assessment of subclinical vascular disease associated with ankylosing spondylitis. J Rheumatol 2011; 38(4): 723-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3899/jrheum.100668 ] [PMID: 21239756]
[128]
Bai R, Zhang Y, Liu W, et al. The relationship of ankylosing spondylitis and subclinical atherosclerosis: a systemic review and meta-analysis. Angiology 2019; 70(6): 492-500.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0003319718814309 ] [PMID: 30497278]
[129]
Caliskan M, Erdogan D, Gullu H, et al. Impaired coronary microvascular and left ventricular diastolic functions in patients with ankylosing spondylitis. Atherosclerosis 2008; 196(1): 306-12.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2006.11.003 ] [PMID: 17169363]
[130]
Kemény-Beke Á, Gesztelyi R, Bodnár N, et al. Increased production of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) in ankylosing spondylitis: association with other clinical and laboratory parameters. Joint Bone Spine 2011; 78(2): 184-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbspin.2010.05.009 ] [PMID: 20620092]
[131]
Erre GL, Sanna P, Zinellu A, et al. Plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) levels and atherosclerotic disease in ankylosing spondylitis: a cross-sectional study. Clin Rheumatol 2011; 30(1): 21-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10067-010-1589-x ] [PMID: 20945076]
[132]
Sari I, Kebapcilar L, Alacacioglu A, et al. Increased levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) in patients with ankylosing spondylitis. Intern Med 2009; 48(16): 1363-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2169/internalmedicine.48.2193 ] [PMID: 19687580]
[133]
Gonzalez-Juanatey C, Llorca J, Miranda-Filloy JA, et al. Endothelial dysfunction in psoriatic arthritis patients without clinically evident cardiovascular disease or classic atherosclerosis risk factors. Arthritis Rheum 2007; 57(2): 287-93.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/art.22530 ] [PMID: 17330278]
[134]
Moroni L, Selmi C, Angelini C, Meroni PL. Evaluation of Endothelial Function by Flow-Mediated Dilation: a Comprehensive Review in Rheumatic Disease. Arch Immunol Ther Exp (Warsz) 2017; 65(6): 463-75.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00005-017-0465-7 ] [PMID: 28361180]
[135]
Atzeni F, Sarzi-Puttini P, Sitia S, et al. Coronary flow reserve and asymmetric dimethylarginine levels: new measurements for identifying subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with psoriatic arthritis. J Rheumatol 2011; 38(8): 1661-4.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3899/jrheum.100893 ] [PMID: 21632673]
[136]
Lo Gullo A, Rodríguez-Carrio J, Aragona CO, et al. Subclinical impairment of myocardial and endothelial functionality in very early psoriatic and rheumatoid arthritis patients: Association with vitamin D and inflammation. Atherosclerosis 2018; 271: 214-22.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2018.03.004 ] [PMID: 29524864]
[137]
Kolliker Frers RA, Cosentino V, Tau J, et al. Immune-Mediated Inflammation Promotes Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Recent-Onset Psoriatic Arthritis Patients without Conventional Cardiovascular Risk Factors. Front Immunol 2018; 9: 139.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2018.00139 ] [PMID: 29535705]
[138]
Damen JAAG, Hooft L, Schuit E, et al. Prediction models for cardiovascular disease risk in the general population: systematic review. BMJ 2016; 353: i2416.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.i2416 ] [PMID: 27184143]
[139]
Goff DC Jr, Lloyd-Jones DM, Bennett G, et al. 2013 ACC/AHA guideline on the assessment of cardiovascular risk: a report of the American college of cardiology/American heart association task force on practice guidelines. J Am Coll Cardiol 2014; 63(25 Pt B): 2935-59.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2013.11.005 ] [PMID: 24239921]
[140]
Hippisley-Cox J, Coupland C, Brindle P. Development and validation of QRISK3 risk prediction algorithms to estimate future risk of cardiovascular disease: prospective cohort study. BMJ 2017; 357: j2099.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.j2099 ] [PMID: 28536104]
[141]
Agca R, Heslinga SC, Rollefstad S, et al. EULAR recommendations for cardiovascular disease risk management in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and other forms of inflammatory joint disorders: 2015/2016 update. Ann Rheum Dis 2017; 76(1): 17-28.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/annrheumdis-2016-209775 ] [PMID: 27697765]
[142]
Fernández-Gutiérrez B, Perrotti PP, Gisbert JP, et al. IMID Consortium. Cardiovascular disease in immune-mediated inflammatory diseases: A cross-sectional analysis of 6 cohorts. Medicine (Baltimore) 2017; 96(26) e7308
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000007308 ] [PMID: 28658137]
[143]
Lauper K, Courvoisier DS, Chevallier P, Finckh A, Gabay C. Incidence and Prevalence of Major Adverse Cardiovascular Events in Rheumatoid Arthritis, Psoriatic Arthritis, and Axial Spondyloarthritis. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) 2018; 70(12): 1756-63.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/acr.23567 ] [PMID: 29609199]
[144]
Ernste FC, Sánchez-Menéndez M, Wilton KM, Crowson CS, Matteson EL, Maradit Kremers H. Cardiovascular risk profile at the onset of psoriatic arthritis: a population-based cohort study. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) 2015; 67(7): 1015-21.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/acr.22536 ] [PMID: 25581120]
[145]
Martínez-Vidal MP, Fernández-Carballido C. Is the SCORE chart underestimating the real cardiovascular (CV) risk of patients with psoriatic arthritis? Prevalence of subclinical CV disease detected by carotid ultrasound. Joint Bone Spine 2018; 85(3): 327-32.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbspin.2017.07.002 ] [PMID: 28716557]
[146]
Shen J, Lam SH, Shang Q, et al. Underestimation of risk of carotid subclinical atherosclerosis by cardiovascular risk scores in patients with psoriatic arthritis. J Rheumatol 2018; 45(2): 218-26.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3899/jrheum.170025 ] [PMID: 29142027]
[147]
Toms TE, Panoulas VF, Douglas KMJ, et al. Statin use in rheumatoid arthritis in relation to actual cardiovascular risk: evidence for substantial undertreatment of lipid-associated cardiovascular risk? Ann Rheum Dis 2010; 69(4): 683-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/ard.2009.115717 ] [PMID: 19854705]
[148]
Panoulas VF, Douglas KMJ, Milionis HJ, et al. Prevalence and associations of hypertension and its control in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2007; 46(9): 1477-82.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/rheumatology/kem169 ] [PMID: 17704521]
[149]
Eder L, Harvey P, Chandran V, et al. Gaps in diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular risk factors in patients with psoriatic disease: an international multicenter study. J Rheumatol 2018; 45(3): 378-84.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3899/jrheum.170379 ] [PMID: 29419462]
[150]
Oza A, Lu N, Schoenfeld SR, et al. Survival benefit of statin use in ankylosing spondylitis: a general population-based cohort study. Ann Rheum Dis 2017; 76(10): 1737-42.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/annrheumdis-2017-211253 ] [PMID: 28698231]
[151]
van der Heijde D, Ramiro S, Landewé R, et al. 2016 update of the ASAS-EULAR management recommendations for axial spondyloarthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 2017; 76(6): 978-91.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/annrheumdis-2016-210770 ] [PMID: 28087505]
[152]
Gossec L, Smolen JS, Ramiro S, et al. European league against rheumatism (EULAR) recommendations for the management of psoriatic arthritis with pharmacological therapies: 2015 update. Ann Rheum Dis 2016; 75(3): 499-510.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/annrheumdis-2015-208337 ] [PMID: 26644232]
[153]
Singh JA, Guyatt G, Ogdie A, et al. 2018 American college of rheumatology/national psoriasis foundation guideline for the treatment of psoriatic arthritis. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) 2019; 71(1): 2-29.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/acr.23789 ] [PMID: 30499259]
[154]
Smolen JS, Schöls M, Braun J, et al. Treating axial spondyloarthritis and peripheral spondyloarthritis, especially psoriatic arthritis, to target: 2017 update of recommendations by an international task force. Ann Rheum Dis 2018; 77(1): 3-17.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/annrheumdis-2017-211734 ] [PMID: 28684559]
[155]
Ramiro S, van der Heijde D, van Tubergen A, et al. Higher disease activity leads to more structural damage in the spine in ankylosing spondylitis: 12-year longitudinal data from the OASIS cohort. Ann Rheum Dis 2014; 73(8): 1455-61.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/annrheumdis-2014-205178 ] [PMID: 24812292]
[156]
Landewé R, Dougados M, Mielants H, van der Tempel H, van der Heijde D. Physical function in ankylosing spondylitis is independently determined by both disease activity and radiographic damage of the spine. Ann Rheum Dis 2009; 68(6): 863-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/ard.2008.091793 ] [PMID: 18628283]
[157]
Bond SJ, Farewell VT, Schentag CT, Gladman DD. Predictors for radiological damage in psoriatic arthritis: results from a single centre. Ann Rheum Dis 2007; 66(3): 370-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/ard.2006.056457 ] [PMID: 16916855]
[158]
Kerschbaumer A, Baker D, Smolen JS, Aletaha D. The effects of structural damage on functional disability in psoriatic arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 2017; 76(12): 2038-45.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/annrheumdis-2017-211433 ] [PMID: 28835465]
[159]
Haroon M, Gallagher P, FitzGerald O. Diagnostic delay of more than 6 months contributes to poor radiographic and functional outcome in psoriatic arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 2015; 74(6): 1045-50.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/annrheumdis-2013-204858 ] [PMID: 24525911]
[160]
Coates LC, Moverley AR, McParland L, et al. Effect of tight control of inflammation in early psoriatic arthritis (TICOPA): a UK multicentre, open-label, randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2015; 386(10012): 2489-98.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(15)00347-5 ] [PMID: 26433318]
[161]
Helliwell PS, Kavanaugh A. Radiographic progression in psoriatic arthritis achieving a good response to treatment: data using newer composite indices of disease activity. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) 2018; 70(5): 797-800.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/acr.23345 ] [PMID: 28834259]
[162]
Lacaille D, Avina-Zubieta JA, Sayre EC, Abrahamowicz M. Improvement in 5-year mortality in incident rheumatoid arthritis compared with the general population-closing the mortality gap. Ann Rheum Dis 2017; 76(6): 1057-63.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/annrheumdis-2016-209562 ] [PMID: 28031164]
[163]
Rausch Osthoff A-K, Niedermann K, Braun J, et al. 2018 EULAR recommendations for physical activity in people with inflammatory arthritis and osteoarthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 2018; 77(9): 1251-60.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/annrheumdis-2018-213585 ] [PMID: 29997112]
[164]
Sharan D, Rajkumar JS. Physiotherapy for ankylosing spondylitis: systematic review and a proposed rehabilitation protocol. Curr Rheumatol Rev 2017; 13(2): 121-5.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1573397112666161025112750 ] [PMID: 27784233]
[165]
Saracoglu I, Kurt G, Okur EO, et al. The effectiveness of specific exercise types on cardiopulmonary functions in patients with ankylosing spondylitis: a systematic review. Rheumatol Int 2017; 37(3): 409-21.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00296-016-3603-3 ] [PMID: 27837263]
[166]
Roger-Silva D, Natour J, Moreira E, Jennings F. A resistance exercise program improves functional capacity of patients with psoriatic arthritis: a randomized controlled trial. Clin Rheumatol 2018; 37(2): 389-95.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10067-017-3917-x ] [PMID: 29185133]
[167]
Thomsen RS, Nilsen TIL, Haugeberg G, Bye A, Kavanaugh A, Hoff M. Impact of high-intensity interval training on disease activity and disease in patients with psoriatic arthritis: a randomized controlled trial. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) 2019; 71(4): 530-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/acr.23614 ] [PMID: 29882634]
[168]
Thomsen RS, Nilsen TIL, Haugeberg G, Bye A, Kavanaugh A, Hoff M. Effect of high-intensity interval training on cardiovascular disease risk factors and body composition in psoriatic arthritis: a randomised controlled trial. RMD Open 2018; 4(2)e000729
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/rmdopen-2018-000729 ] [PMID: 30402265]
[169]
Pécourneau V, Degboé Y, Barnetche T, Cantagrel A, Constantin A, Ruyssen-Witrand A. Effectiveness of exercise programs in ankylosing spondylitis: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2018; 99(2): 383-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2017.07.015 ] [PMID: 28860095]
[170]
Di Minno MND, Peluso R, Iervolino S, Russolillo A, Lupoli R, Scarpa R. CaRRDs Study Group. Weight loss and achievement of minimal disease activity in patients with psoriatic arthritis starting treatment with tumour necrosis factor α blockers. Ann Rheum Dis 2014; 73(6): 1157-62.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/annrheumdis-2012-202812 ] [PMID: 23771989]
[171]
Kiortsis DN, Mavridis AK, Filippatos TD, Vasakos S, Nikas SN, Drosos AA. Effects of infliximab treatment on lipoprotein profile in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis. J Rheumatol 2006; 33(5): 921-3.
[PMID: 16541480]
[172]
Heslinga SC, Peters MJ, Ter Wee MM, et al. Reduction of inflammation drives lipid changes in ankylosing spondylitis. J Rheumatol 2015; 42(10): 1842-5.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3899/jrheum.150193 ] [PMID: 26329334]
[173]
van Eijk IC, de Vries MK, Levels JHM, et al. Improvement of lipid profile is accompanied by atheroprotective alterations in high-density lipoprotein composition upon tumor necrosis factor blockade: a prospective cohort study in ankylosing spondylitis. Arthritis Rheum 2009; 60(5): 1324-30.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/art.24492 ] [PMID: 19404933]
[174]
Hassan S, Milman U, Feld J, et al. Effects of anti-TNF-α treatment on lipid profile in rheumatic diseases: an analytical cohort study. Arthritis Res Ther 2016; 18(1): 261.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13075-016-1148-1 ] [PMID: 27832797]
[175]
Kiortsis DN, Mavridis AK, Vasakos S, Nikas SN, Drosos AA. Effects of infliximab treatment on insulin resistance in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis. Ann Rheum Dis 2005; 64(5): 765-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/ard.2004.026534 ] [PMID: 15458960]
[176]
van Eijk IC, Peters MJL, Serné EH, et al. Microvascular function is impaired in ankylosing spondylitis and improves after tumour necrosis factor alpha blockade. Ann Rheum Dis 2009; 68(3): 362-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/ard.2007.086777 ] [PMID: 18390569]
[177]
Batko B, Maga P, Urbanski K, et al. Microvascular dysfunction in ankylosing spondylitis is associated with disease activity and is improved by anti-TNF treatment. Sci Rep 2018; 8(1): 13205.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-31550-y ] [PMID: 30181568]
[178]
van Sijl AM, van Eijk IC, Peters MJL, et al. Tumour necrosis factor blocking agents and progression of subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with ankylosing spondylitis. Ann Rheum Dis 2015; 74(1): 119-23.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/annrheumdis-2013-203934 ] [PMID: 24092419]
[179]
Arida A, Protogerou AD, Konstantonis G, et al. Subclinical atherosclerosis is not accelerated in patients with ankylosing spondylitis with low disease activity: new data and meta-analysis of published studies. J Rheumatol 2015; 42(11): 2098-105.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3899/jrheum.150316 ] [PMID: 26428207]
[180]
Lee JL, Sinnathurai P, Buchbinder R, Hill C, Lassere M, March L. Biologics and cardiovascular events in inflammatory arthritis: a prospective national cohort study. Arthritis Res Ther 2018; 20(1): 171.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13075-018-1669-x ] [PMID: 30086795]
[181]
Agca R, Heslinga M, Kneepkens EL, van Dongen C, Nurmohamed MT. The effects of 5-year etanercept therapy on cardiovascular risk factors in patients with psoriatic arthritis. J Rheumatol 2017; 44(9): 1362-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3899/jrheum.161418 ] [PMID: 28572461]
[182]
Eder L, Joshi AA, Dey AK, et al. Association of tumor necrosis factor inhibitor treatment with reduced indices of subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with psoriatic disease. Arthritis Rheumatol 2018; 70(3): 408-16.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/art.40366 ] [PMID: 29088580]
[183]
Roubille C, Richer V, Starnino T, et al. The effects of tumour necrosis factor inhibitors, methotrexate, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and corticosteroids on cardiovascular events in rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ann Rheum Dis 2015; 74(3): 480-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/annrheumdis-2014-206624 ] [PMID: 25561362]
[184]
Yang Z-S, Lin N-N, Li L, Li Y. The effect of TNF inhibitors on cardiovascular events in psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis: an updated meta-analysis. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol 2016; 51(2): 240-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12016-016-8560-9 ] [PMID: 27300248]
[185]
Kim B-S, Lee W-K, Pak K, et al. Ustekinumab treatment is associated with decreased systemic and vascular inflammation in patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis: Feasibility study using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT. J Am Acad Dermatol 2019; 80(5): 1322-31.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaad.2018.03.011 ] [PMID: 29559399]
[186]
von Stebut E, Reich K, Thaçi D, et al. Impact of Secukinumab on Endothelial Dysfunction and Other Cardiovascular Disease Parameters in Psoriasis Patients over 52 Weeks. J Invest Dermatol 2019; 139(5): 1054-62.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jid.2018.10.042]
[187]
Rungapiromnan W, Yiu ZZN, Warren RB, Griffiths CEM, Ashcroft DM. Impact of biologic therapies on risk of major adverse cardiovascular events in patients with psoriasis: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Br J Dermatol 2017; 176(4): 890-901.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjd.14964 ] [PMID: 27518205]
[188]
Daïen CI, Duny Y, Barnetche T, Daurès J-P, Combe B, Morel J. Effect of TNF inhibitors on lipid profile in rheumatoid arthritis: a systematic review with meta-analysis. Ann Rheum Dis 2012; 71(6): 862-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/annrheumdis-2011-201148 ] [PMID: 22267329]
[189]
Di Minno MND, Ambrosino P, Peluso R, Di Minno A, Lupoli R, Dentali F. Lipid profile changes in patients with rheumatic diseases receiving a treatment with TNF-α blockers: a meta-analysis of prospective studies. Ann Med 2014; 46(2): 73-83.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/07853890.2013.874661 ] [PMID: 24460516]
[190]
Vlachopoulos C, Gravos A, Georgiopoulos G, et al. The effect of TNF-a antagonists on aortic stiffness and wave reflections: a meta-analysis. Clin Rheumatol 2018; 37(2): 515-26.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10067-017-3657-y] [PMID: 28484887]


Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as

Article Details

VOLUME: 18
ISSUE: 5
Year: 2020
Published on: 10 August, 2020
Page: [473 - 487]
Pages: 15
DOI: 10.2174/1570161117666190426164306
Price: $65

Article Metrics

PDF: 26
HTML: 1