Pharmacological Management of Cardiac Disease in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: Insights into Clinical Practice

Author(s): Dimitrios Patoulias, Konstantinos Stavropoulos, Konstantinos Imprialos, Vasilios Athyros, Michael Doumas*, Asterios Karagiannis

Journal Name: Current Vascular Pharmacology

Volume 18 , Issue 2 , 2020

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Graphical Abstract:


Abstract:

Background: Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) has emerged as a growing pandemic. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) constitutes another major health problem, with coronary heart disease being the leading cause of cardiovascular death. Patients with T2DM require a multilevel therapeutic approach, both for primary and secondary prevention of CVD.

Objective: To present and summarize the most recent, highest level evidence retrieved from literature, relevant to the pharmaceutical management of CVD in T2DM.

Methods: We conducted a comprehensive search of the literature on MEDLINE from its inception till today, primarily for relevant systematic reviews, meta-analyses and randomized controlled trials.

Results: There is a trend towards more intensified therapeutic interventions in T2DM, concerning glycemic, lipid and blood pressure control. New drugs, such as sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors, glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) and proprotein convertase subtilisin/ kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors might evolve as key players in the management of diabetes and its complications within the next years. Classic drugs, such as those targeting the renin-angiotensinaldosterone system, statins and aspirin remain first-line treatment options, both for primary and secondary prevention of CVD. Lifestyle interventions should always be integrated into a complete therapeutic strategy in diabetic patients. Novel drugs, such as finerenone and LCZ696 have provided significant results in cardiovascular outcome studies; however, their role in T2DM has to be further elucidated.

Conclusion: Pharmaceutical approach of CVD in T2DM is multilevel and complex. Drug classes featuring pleiotropic effects may boost our armamentarium in the fight against CVD.

Keywords: Type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, mortality, prevention, insulin, glycemic control.

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Article Details

VOLUME: 18
ISSUE: 2
Year: 2020
Page: [125 - 138]
Pages: 14
DOI: 10.2174/1570161117666190426162746
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