Comparative Glycaemic Indices of a Four Herbal Combinatorial Formulation Administered On Wistar Rats

Author(s): Inya Joseph*, Ojiako Okey, Emejulu Angela

Journal Name: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders - Drug Targets
Formerly Current Drug Targets - Immune, Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders

Volume 19 , Issue 7 , 2019


Become EABM
Become Reviewer
Call for Editor

Graphical Abstract:


Abstract:

Objective: The effect of dietary incorporation of ethanolic extracts of single and combinatorial formulations of Acanthus montanus (ACMO), Asystaciagangetica (ASGA), Gongronemalatifolium (GOLA) and Solanummelongena (SOME) on glucose tolerance was studied in normoglycaemicWistar rats.

Methods: A total of 128 Wistar rats were used for the research work. The rats were divided into 32 groups of 4 rats each. One group was the normal control group and 15 groups were orally administered 200mg/kg body weight extract(s) for the single and combinatorial formulations. Another group (negative control) was given oral glucose load (4g/100ml) of 200mg/kg body weight alone and the remaining 15 groups were given oral glucose load (4g/100ml) of 200mg/kg body weight before giving the test extract(s) of 200mg/kg body weight.

Results: Post-prandial serum glucose response at 30 minutes interval was plotted and the area under the curve (AUC) used to determine glycaemic index (GI) of each herbs. The herbs (ACMO, ASGA, GOLA and SOME) resulted in a marked improvement in oral glucose tolerance in rats after 10 days of treatment at an interval of 2 days. Blood glucose concentration (mmol/l) of rats administered with the combinations; ACMO+GOLA, ACMO+SOME, SOME+GOLA, ACMO+SOME+GOLA+GLU, ACMO+ASGA+GOLA, ACMO+SOME+GOLA and ACMO+ASGA+GOLA+SOME was found to belowered, with ACMO+ASGA+GOLA combination having the best result. This might be a result of hypoglycaemic synergy promoted by the various bioactive principles present in the combined extracts thereby lowering the GI. These findings revealed that the listed combinations have hypoglycaemic potentials and habitual consumption could positively modulate oral glucose tolerance.

Conclusion: The herbs could be useful in the dietary management of diabetes as they could help regulate blood glucose level when consumed with normal meals and could also be incorporated into meals to prevent or delay the onset of diabetes or reverse the same in its early stages.

Keywords: Glycaemic index, glucose tolerance, acanthus montanus, asystaciagangetica, gongronemalatifolium, solanummelongena.

[1]
Chiu, C.J.; Liu, S.; Willett, W.C.; Wolever, T.M.; Brand-Miller, J.C.; Barclay, A.W.; Taylor, A. Informing food choices and health outcomes by use of the dietary glycemic index. Nutr. Rev., 2011, 69(4), 231-242.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1753-4887.2011.00382.x] [PMID: 21457267]
[2]
Rhee, S.Y.; Woo, J.T.; Chon, S.; Hwang, Y.C.; Oh, S.; Ahn, K.J.; Chung, H.Y.; Kim, S.W.; Kim, J.W.; Kim, Y.S. Characteristics of insulin resistance and insulin secretory capacity in Korean subjects with IFG and IGT. Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract., 2010, 89(3), 250-255.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.diabres.2010.05.002] [PMID: 20605249]
[3]
Zaid, H.; Antonescu, C.N.; Randhawa, V.K.; Klip, A. Insulin action on glucose transporters through molecular switches, tracks and tethers. Biochem. J., 2008, 413(2), 201-215.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/BJ20080723] [PMID: 18570632]
[4]
Guillausseau, P-J.; Meas, T.; Virally, M.; Laloi-Michelin, M.; Médeau, V.; Kevorkian, J-P. Abnormalities in insulin secretion in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Metab., 2008, 34(Suppl. 2), S43-S48.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1262-3636(08)73394-9] [PMID: 18640585]
[5]
Mohammed, A.; Ibrahim, M.A.; Islam, M.S. African medicinal plants with antidiabetic potentials: a review. Planta Med., 2014, 80(5), 354-377.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0033-1360335] [PMID: 24535720]
[6]
Newman, D.J.; Cragg, G.M. Natural products as sources of new drugs over the 30 years from 1981 to 2010. J. Nat. Prod., 2012, 75(3), 311-335.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/np200906s] [PMID: 22316239]
[7]
World Health Organisation. WHO Expert committee on Diabetes Mellitus: Second report Techn. report series 646., 1980, , 1-80.
[8]
Witters, L.A. The blooming of the French lilac. J. Clin. Invest., 2001, 108(8), 1105-1107.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI14178] [PMID: 11602616]
[9]
Koehn, F.E.; Carter, G.T. The evolving role of natural products in drug discovery. Nat. Rev. Drug Discov., 2005, 4(3), 206-220.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nrd1657] [PMID: 15729362]
[10]
Jiofack, T.; Ayissi, I.; Fokunang, C.; Gueje, N.; Kemeuze, V. Ethnobotany and phytomedicine of the upper Nyong valley forest in Cameroon. Afr. J. Pharm. Pharmacol., 2009, 3(4), 144-150.
[11]
Ojiako, O.A.; Chikezie, P.C.; Ogbuji, C.A. Comparative Hypoglycemic Activities of Aqueous and Ethanolic Extracts of four medicinal plants. (A. montanus, A. gangetica, E. coccineaandH. rosasinensis) in type 1 diabetic rats. J. Intercult. Ethnopharmacol., 2015, 4(3), 228-233.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.5455/jice.20150508045222] [PMID: 26401413]
[12]
Akamine, E. Germination of Asystasiagangetica L. Seed with Special Reference to the Effect of Age on the Temperature Requirement for Germination. Plant Physiol., 2014, 4(22), 603-607.
[13]
Akah, P.A.; Ezike, A.C.; Nwafor, S.V.; Okoli, C.O.; Enwerem, N.M. Evaluation of the anti-asthmatic property of Asystasia gangetica leaf extracts. J. Ethnopharmacol., 2003, 89(1), 25-36.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-8741(03)00227-7] [PMID: 14522429]
[14]
Rotimi, S.O.; Omotosho, O.E.; Rotimi, O.A. Persistence of acidosis in alloxan-induced diabetic rats treated with the juice of Asystasia gangetica leaves. Pharmacogn. Mag., 2011, 7(25), 25-30.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0973-1296.75887] [PMID: 21472075]
[15]
Burkill, H.M. The useful plants of West Tropical Africa. Families A-D., 1985, 1(2)
[16]
Emeka, E.J.I.; Obioa, O. Effect of a long term consumption of a diet supplemented with leaves of GongronemalatifoliumBenth. on some biochemical and histological parameters in male albino rats. J. Biol. Sci., 2009, 9(8), 859-865.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3923/jbs.2009.859.865]
[17]
Bonsu, K.O.; Fontem, D.A.; Nkansah, G.O.; Iruome, R.N.; Owusu, E.O.; Schippers, R.R. Diversity within the Gboma eggplant (Solanummarcocarpon), an indigenous vegetable from West Africa. Ghana J. Hortic., 2008, 1, 50-58.
[18]
Bello, S.O.; Muhammed, B.Y.; Gammaniel, K.S.; Abdu-Ayugel, K.S.; Ahmed, H.; Njoku, C.H.; Pindiga, U.H.; Salka, A.M. Preliminary evaluation of the toxicity and some Pharmacological properties of Aqueous crude extract of Solanummelongena. Res. J. Agric. Biol. Sci., 2005, 1, 1-9.
[19]
Taiwo, I.A.; Odeigah, P.G.C.; Ogunkanmi, L.A. The glycaemic effects of V. amygdalinaand V. tenoreanawith tolbutamide in rats and implications of the treatment of diabetes mellitus. J. of Sci.Res. and Dev., 2009, 11, 122-130.
[20]
Brouns, F.; Bjorck, I.; Frayn, K.N.; Gibbs, A.L.; Lang, V.; Slama, G.; Wolever, T.M. Glycaemic index methodology. Nutr. Res. Rev., 2005, 18(1), 145-171.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1079/NRR2005100] [PMID: 19079901]
[21]
Yao, Y.; Luong, T. N.; Lepik, M.; Aftab, N.; Fong, V. I. Synergism of antioxidant phytochemicals: comparison among purified polyphenols and dietary plant extracts. ISHS Acta Horticulture 939., 2010
[22]
Ejike, E.C.C.; Ifeoma, I.I.; Ihunna, P.A. Improvement of glucose tolerance in rats fed with diets containing Vernoniaamygdalinaleaves. An Inter. J. of Nigerian Soc. for Exp. Biol., 2013, 25(1), 1-5. [NISEB]
[23]
Patel, D.K.; Prasad, S.K.; Kumar, R.; Hemalatha, S. An overview on antidiabetic medicinal plants having insulin mimetic property. Asian Pac. J. Trop. Biomed., 2012, 2(4), 320-330.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2221-1691(12)60032-X] [PMID: 23569923]
[24]
Ali, R.B.; Atangwho, I.J.; Kuar, N.; Mohammed, E.A.H.; Mohammed, A.J. Hypoglycaemic and anti-hyperglycemic study of Phaleriamacrocarpafruits pericarp. J. Med. Plants Res., 2012, 6, 1982-1990.
[25]
Foster-Powell, K.; Holt, S.H.A.; Brand-Miller, J.C. International table of glycemic index and glycemic load values: 2002. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 2002, 76(1), 5-56.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/76.1.5] [PMID: 12081815]


Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as

Article Details

VOLUME: 19
ISSUE: 7
Year: 2019
Published on: 11 October, 2019
Page: [991 - 1004]
Pages: 14
DOI: 10.2174/1871530319666190418124618
Price: $65

Article Metrics

PDF: 18
HTML: 2