The Progressive Journey of Phytosomes in Herbal Based Pharmacotherapeutics

Author(s): Debarshi K. Mahapatra, Shailendra Patil, Asmita G. Patil*

Journal Name: Current Bioactive Compounds

Volume 16 , Issue 6 , 2020

Become EABM
Become Reviewer

Graphical Abstract:


Abstract:

Background: The primary objective of any pharmacotherapeutics approach entirely lies with the effectiveness of the rationally designed delivery system to effectually deliver the suitable drug at the appropriate concentration at the proper site. Phytosomes are most effective carrier for the possible enhancement of bioavailability, reduction in the clearance rate, providing higher dissolution, and amplification of solubility by several folds of various natural products.

Methods: The present review article focuses exclusively on the recent global advancements in the emerging novel drug delivery field of phytosomes from the year 1996 to present.

Results: The article comprehensively highlights the reported phospholipid complexes of the active phytoconstituents (18β-Glycyrrhetinic acid, Andrographolide, Baicalein, Baicalin, Berberine, Catechin, Celastrol, Curcumin, Epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate, Evodiamine, Gingerol, Gymnemic acid, Icaritin, Kaempferol, L-carnosine, Luteolin, Mitomycin-C, Piperine, Quercetin, Resveratrol, Rutin, Salicin, Silibinin or Silybin or Silymarin, Sinigrin, and Umbelliferone) and herbal extracts (Aegle marmelos, Allium cepa, Allium sativum, Bacopa monnieri, Boswellia serrata, Butea monosperma, Calendula officinalis, Centella asiatica, Citrullus colocynthis, Ginkgo biloba, Glycine max, Lawsonia inermis, Mentha pulegium, Momordica balsamina, Momordica dioica, Phyllanthus amarus, Phyllanthus emblica, Tecomella undulate, and Woodfordia fruticosa) in treatment of various ailments along with the possible enhancement of pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetic attributes. The review also exhaustively focuses on the clinical trials of several vesicular products and patents information.

Conclusion: This article will be vital for the researchers of numerous fields who are working towards the development of novel drug delivery system for translating better therapeutic effects of herbal based components.

Keywords: Phytosome, delivery, extract, phytoconstituent, clinical trial, patent.

[1]
Sarabi, R.S.; Sadeghi, E.L.; Hosseinkhani, H.O.; Mahmoudi, M.O.; Kalantari, M.; Adeli, M.O. Polyrotaxane capped quan-tum dots as new candidates for Cancer diagnosis and therapy. J. Nanostruct. Polym. Nanocomp., 2011, 7, 18-31.
[2]
Laurencin, C.T.; Nair, L.S. Editorial: Nanostructure for therapeutics applications. Curr. Bioact. Compd., 2009, 5(3), 169.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/157340709789054768]
[3]
Abedini, F.; Ebrahimi, M.; Roozbehani, A.H.; Domb, A.J.; Hosseinkhani, H. Overview on natural hydrophilic polysaccharide polymers in drug delivery. Polym. Adv. Technol., 2018, 29(10), 2564-2573.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pat.4375]
[4]
Babazadeh, A.; Zeinali, M.; Hamishehkar, H. Nano-Phytosome: A developing platform for herbal anti-cancer agents in cancer therapy. Curr. Drug Targets, 2018, 19(2), 170-180.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1389450118666170508095250] [PMID: 28482783]
[5]
Shakeri, A.; Sahebkar, A. Opinion paper: Phytosome: A fatty solution for efficient formulation of phytopharmaceuticals. Recent Pat. Drug Deliv. Formul., 2016, 10(1), 7-10.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1872211309666150813152305] [PMID: 26268361]
[6]
Sosa, M.H.; Keyes, R.; Stieglitz, A.K. Structural analysis of relevant drug targets for Alzheimer’s disease: Novel approaches to drug development. Curr. Bioact. Compd., 2017, 13(2), 90-100.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1573407212666160607091117]
[7]
Farokhi, M.; Mottaghitalab, F.; Shokrgozar, M.A.; Ou, K.L.; Mao, C.; Hosseinkhani, H. Importance of dual delivery systems for bone tissue engineering. J. Control. Release, 2016, 225, 152-169.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jconrel.2016.01.033] [PMID: 26805518]
[8]
He, W.J.; Hosseinkhani, H.; Hong, P.D.; Chiang, C.H.; Yu, D.S. Magnetic nanoparticles for imaging technology. Int. J. Nanotechnol., 2013, 10(10-11), 930-944.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1504/IJNT.2013.058120]
[9]
He, W.; Hosseinkhani, H.; Mohammadinejad, R.; Roveimiab, Z.; Hueng, D.Y.; Ou, K.L.; Domb, A.J. Polymeric nanoparticles for therapy and imaging. Polym. Adv. Technol., 2014, 25(11), 1216-1225.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pat.3381]
[10]
Mahmoudi, M.; Hosseinkhani, H.; Hosseinkhani, M.; Boutry, S.; Simchi, A.; Journeay, W.S.; Subramani, K.; Laurent, S. Magnetic resonance imaging tracking of stem cells in vivo using iron oxide nanoparticles as a tool for the advancement of clinical regenerative medicine. Chem. Rev., 2011, 111(2), 253-280.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/cr1001832] [PMID: 21077606]
[11]
Hosseinkhani, H.; Chen, Y.R.; He, W.; Hong, P.D.; Yu, D.S.; Domb, A.J. Engineering of magnetic DNA nanoparticles for tumor-targeted therapy. J. Nanopart. Res., 2013, 15(1), 1345.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11051-012-1345-z]
[12]
Ghadiri, M.; Vasheghani-Farahani, E.; Atyabi, F.; Kobarfard, F.; Mohamadyar-Toupkanlou, F.; Hosseinkhani, H. Transferrin-conjugated magnetic dextran-spermine nanoparticles for targeted drug transport across blood-brain barrier. J. Biomed. Mater. Res. A, 2017, 105(10), 2851-2864.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbm.a.36145] [PMID: 28639394]
[13]
Alibolandi, M.; Abnous, K.; Sadeghi, F.; Hosseinkhani, H.; Ramezani, M.; Hadizadeh, F. Folate receptor-targeted multimodal polymersomes for delivery of quantum dots and doxorubicin to breast adenocarcinoma: In vitro and in vivo evaluation. Int. J. Pharm., 2016, 500(1-2), 162-178.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2016.01.040] [PMID: 26802496]
[14]
Mottaghitalab, F.; Farokhi, M.; Shokrgozar, M.A.; Atyabi, F.; Hosseinkhani, H. Silk fibroin nanoparticle as a novel drug delivery system. J. Control. Release, 2015, 206, 161-176.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jconrel.2015.03.020] [PMID: 25797561]
[15]
Acharya, N.S.; Parihar, G.V.; Acharay, S.R. Phytosomes: novel approach for delivering herbal extract with improved bioavailability. Pharma Sci. Monitor, 2011, 2, 144-160.
[16]
Agarwal, V.K.; Gupta, A.M.; Chaturvedi, S.H. Improvement in bioavailability of class-III drug: Phytolipid delivery system. Int. J. Pharm. Pharm. Sci., 2012, 4(1), 37-42.
[17]
Amit, P.; Tanwar, Y.S.; Rakesh, S.; Poojan, P. Phytosome: Phytolipid drug delivery system for improving bioavailability of herbal drug. J. Pharm. Sci. Biosci. Res., 2013, 3(2), 51-57.
[18]
Awasthi, R.; Kulkarni, G.T.; Pawar, V.K. Phytosomes: an approach to increase the bioavailability of plant extracts. Int. J. Pharm. Pharm. Sci., 2011, 3(2), 1-3.
[19]
Bhattacharya, S. Phytosomes: The new technology for enhancement of bioavailability of botanicals and nutraceuticals. Int. J. Health Res., 2009, 2(3), 225-232.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ijhr.v2i3.47905]
[20]
Bhosale, A.P.; Patil, A.; Swami, M. Herbosomes as a novel drug delivery system for absorption enhancement. World J. Pharm. Pharm. Sci., 2015, 5(1), 345-355.
[21]
Chauhan, N.S.; Rajan, G.; Gopalakrishna, B. Phytosomes: a potential phyto-phospholipid carriers for herbal drug deliv-ery. J. Pharm. Res., 2009, 2(7), 1267-1270.
[22]
Choudhury, A.; Verma, S.; Roy, A. Phytosome: A novel dosage form for herbal drug delivery. J. Appl. Pharm. Res., 2014, 2(2), 44-52.
[23]
Deshpande, P.K.; Pathak, A.K.; Gothalwal, R. Phytosomes: A noval drug delivery system for phytoconstituents. J. N. Biol. Rep., 2014, 3(3), 212-220.
[24]
Gandhi, A.; Dutta, A.; Pal, A.; Bakshi, P. Recent trends of phytosomes for delivering herbal extract with improved bioavailability. J. Pharmacog. Phytochem., 2012, 1(4), 6-14.
[25]
Gnananath, K.; Sri Nataraj, K.; Ganga Rao, B. Phospholipid complex technique for superior bioavailability of phytoconstituents. Adv. Pharm. Bull., 2017, 7(1), 35-42.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.15171/apb.2017.005] [PMID: 28507935]
[26]
Jadhav, A.I.; Wadhave, A.A.; Arsul, V.A.; Sawarkar, H.S. Phytosomes: A novel approach in herbal drug delivery sys-tem. Int. J. Pharm. Drug Anal., 2014, 2(5), 478-486.
[27]
Jain, N.; Gupta, B.P.; Thakur, N.; Jain, R.; Banweer, J.; Jain, D.K.; Jain, S. Phytosome: Novel drug delivery system for herbal medicine. Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Drug Res., 2010, 2(4), 224-228.
[28]
Kalita, B.; Das, M.K.; Sharma, A.K. Novel phytosome formulations in making herbal extracts more effective. J. Pharm. Technol., 2013, 6(11), 1295-1301.
[29]
Karataş, A.; Turhan, F. Phyto-phospholipid complexes as drug delivery system for herbal extracts/molecules. Turk. J. Pharm. Sci., 2015, 12(1), 93-102.
[30]
Kareparamban, J.A.; Nikam, P.H.; Jadhav, A.P.; Kadam, V.J. Phytosome: A novel revolution in herbal drugs. Int. J. Res. Pharm. Chem., 2012, 2(2), 299-310.
[31]
Karimi, N.; Ghanbarzadeh, M.; Hamishehkar, H.; Pezeshki, A.; Mostafayi, H.; Gholian, M.M. Phytosome as novel delivery system for nutraceutical materials. Int. J. Curr. Microbiol. Appl. Sci., 2015, 4(6), 152-159.
[32]
Karimi, N.; Ghanbarzadeh, B.; Hamishehkar, H.; Keivani, F.; Pezeshki, A.; Gholian, M.M. Phytosome and liposome: The beneficial encapsulation systems in drug delivery and food application. Appl. Food Biotechnol., 2015, 2(3), 17-27.
[33]
Khar, R.K.; Chakraborthy, G.S.; Saurabh, M. Phytosomes: A Brief overview. J. Pharm. Res., 2016, 15(2), 56-62.
[34]
Kumar, A.B.; Habbu, P.; Hullatti, P.; Kumar, R.S. Phytosomes as Novel Drug Delivery System for Herbal Medicine-A Re-view. Sys. Rev. Pharm., 2017, 8(1), 5-7.
[35]
Kumar, A.; Kumar, B.; Singh, S.K.; Kaur, B.; Singh, S. A review on phytosomes: Novel approach for herbal phytochemicals. Asian J. Pharm. Clin. Res., 2014, 10, 41-47.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.22159/ajpcr.2017.v10i10.20424]
[36]
Kumar, P.; Yadav, S.; Agarwal, A.; Kumar, N. Phytosomes: a noval phyto-phospholipid carriers: an overview. Int. J. Pharm. Res. Devel., 2010, 2(6), 1-7.
[37]
Mahajan, R.T.; Chaudhari, G.M. A Novel Approach towards phytosomal flavonoids. Pharma Sci. Monitor, 2012, 3(4), 2079-2105.
[38]
Mathur, M. Phyto-complex and their role in enhancing efficacy of herbal drugs. Med. Plant, 2013, 5(3), 118-125.
[39]
Monica, G.; Naik, V.V. Herbosomes: A potential carriers for the bioavailability enhancement of herbal extracts. World J. Pharm. Pharm. Sci., 2014, 4(10), 1052-1079.
[40]
Nimbalkar, C.K.; Hatware, K. Phytosomes-novel drug delivery system. Indian J. Drugs, 2017, 5(1), 16-36.
[41]
Pandita, A.; Sharma, P. Pharmacosomes: An emerging novel vesicular drug delivery system for poorly soluble synthetic and herbal drugs. ISRN Pharm, 2013.2013348186
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/348186] [PMID: 24106615]
[42]
Patel, J.; Patel, R.; Khambholja, K.; Patel, N. An overview of phytosomes as an advanced herbal drug delivery system. Asian J. Pharm. Sci., 2009, 4(6), 363-371.
[43]
Pawar, H.A.; Bhangale, B.D. Phytosome as a novel biomedicine: A microencapsulated drug delivery system. J. Bioanal. Biomed., 2015, 7(1), 6-12.
[44]
Rani, B.; Vandana, N.M.; Arora, S. Phytosomes: potential carriers for herbal drugs. Int. J. Res. Rev. Pharm. Appl. Sci., 2007, 2(3), 566-577.
[45]
Rathore, P.; Swami, G. Planterosomes: A potential phyto-phospholipid carriers for the bioavailability enhancement of herbal extracts. Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Res., 2012, 3(3), 737-755.
[46]
Semalty, A.; Semalty, M.; Rawat, M.S. The phyto-phospholipid complexes-phytosomes: A potential therapeutic approach for herbal hepatoprotective drug delivery. Pharmacog. Rev., 2007, 1(2), 369-374.
[47]
Sharma, S.; Roy, R.K. Phytosomes: An emerging technology. Int J. Pharm. Res. Devel., 2010, 2(5), 1-7.
[48]
Shelke, S.S. Phytosomes-A new herbal drug delivery system. Int. J. Res. Pharm. Biomed. Sci., 2012, 3(4), 1710-1715.
[49]
Singh, R.P.; Parpani, S.; Narke, R.; Chavan, R. Phytosome: Recent advance research for novel drug delivery system. Asian J. Pharm. Res. Devel., 2014, 2(3), 15-29.
[50]
Suryawanshi, J.S. Phytosome: An emerging trend in herbal drug treatment. J. Med. Genet. Genom., 2011, 3(6), 109-114.
[51]
Swati, R.; Sapna, M. Phytosomal drug delivery systems. Int. J. Res. Devel. Pharm. Life Sci., 2012, 1(3), 143-150.
[52]
Ubong-Isaac, A.U.; Queensley, E.A.; Enomfon, A.J. Herbosomes in the delivery of phytotherapeutics and nutraceuticals: Concepts; applications and future perspective. Covenant J. Phys. Life Sci., 2015, 3(2), 10-22.
[53]
Udapurkar, P.; Bhusnure, O.; Kamble, S.; Biyani, K. Phyto-phospholipid complex vesicles for phytoconstituents and herbal extracts: A promising drug delivery system. Int. J. Herbal Med., 2016, 4(5), 14-20.
[54]
Zhang, C.Y.; Ge, Y.R.; Wang, C.R.; Jin, Y. Preparation of baicalein- phospholipid complex and its phys-ic-chemical properties J. Jiang. Univ, 2010, 3, 013.
[55]
Wu, J.; Chen, D.; Zhang, R. Study on the bioavailability of baicalin-phospholipid complex by using HPLC. Biomed. Chromatogr., 1999, 13(7), 493-495.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-0801(199911)13:7<493:AID-BMC915>3.0.CO;2-A] [PMID: 10534761]
[56]
Semalty, A.; Semalty, M.; Singh, D.; Rawat, M.S. Phyto-phospholipid complex of catechin in value added herbal drug delivery. J. Incl. Phenom. Macrocycl. Chem., 2012, 73(1-4), 377-386.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10847-011-0074-8]
[57]
Jia, D.; Zhao, J.; Shi, F.; Jia, X. Preparation of icaritin phytosomes and their solid dispersions. Chin. Tradit. Herbal Drugs, 2010, 41(9), 1449-1453.
[58]
Karthivashan, G.; Masarudin, M.J.; Kura, A.U.; Abas, F.; Fakurazi, S. Optimization, formulation, and characterization of multiflavonoids-loaded flavanosome by bulk or sequential technique. Int. J. Nanomedicine, 2016, 11, 3417-3434.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S112045] [PMID: 27555765]
[59]
Hindarto, C.K.; Surini, S.; Saputri, F.C.; Irawan, C. In vivo evaluation of luteolin-loaded phytosome. Pharm. Innov. J., 2017, 6(11), 347-349.
[60]
Hindarto, C.K.; Surini, S.; Permana, A.H.; Redjeki, S.; Irawan, C. Effect of mole ratio on physicochemical properties of lute-olin-loaded phytosome. Pharm. Innov. J., 2017, 6(12), 96-101.
[61]
Lestari, A.; Anwar, E.; Harahap, Y. Design and formulation quercetin formula in the phytosomes system as novel drug delivery. Int. J. Chemtech Res., 2017, 10(6), 148-151.
[62]
Minaei, A.; Sabzichi, M.; Ramezani, F.; Hamishehkar, H.; Samadi, N. Co-delivery with nano-quercetin enhances doxorubicin-mediated cytotoxicity against MCF-7 cells. Mol. Biol. Rep., 2016, 43(2), 99-105.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11033-016-3942-x] [PMID: 26748999]
[63]
Abd El-Fattah, A.I.; Fathy, M.M.; Ali, Z.Y.; El-Garawany, A.E.A.; Mohamed, E.K. Enhanced therapeutic benefit of quercetin-loaded phytosome nanoparticles in ovariectomized rats. Chem. Biol. Interact., 2017, 271, 30-38.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbi.2017.04.026] [PMID: 28460884]
[64]
Rasaie, S.; Ghanbarzadeh, S.; Mohammadi, M.; Hamishehkar, H. Nano phytosomes of quercetin: A promising formulation for fortification of food products with antioxidants. Pharm. Sci., 2014, 20(3), 96-101.
[65]
Vankudri, R.; Habbu, P.; Hiremath, M.; Kumar, M.P.; Iliger, S.; Savant, C.; Patil, B.S. Preparation; therapeutic evaluation and pharmacokinetic study of quercetin-phospholipid com-plex in rats. Int. J. Res. Pharm. Sci., 2017, 8(1), 59-69.
[66]
Vu, H.T.H.; Hook, S.M.; Siqueira, S.D.; Müllertz, A.; Rades, T.; McDowell, A. Are phytosomes a superior nanodelivery system for the antioxidant rutin? Int. J. Pharm., 2018, 548(1), 82-91.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2018.06.042] [PMID: 29933062]
[67]
Das, M.K.; Kalita, B. Design and evaluation of phyto-phospholipid complexes (phytosomes) of rutin for transdermal application. J. Appl. Pharm. Sci., 2014, 4(10), 51-57.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.7324/JAPS.2014.401010]
[68]
Vankudri, R.; Habbu, P.; Hiremath, M.; Patil, B.S.; Savant, C. Preparation and therapeutic evaluation of rutin-phospholipid complex for antidiabetic activity. J. Appl. Pharm. Sci., 2016, 6(1), 90-101.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.7324/JAPS.2016.600116]
[69]
Babazadeh, A.; Ghanbarzadeh, B.; Hamishehkar, H. Phospha-tidylcholine-rutin complex as a potential nanocarrier for food applications. J. Funct. Foods, 2017, 33, 134-141.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jff.2017.03.038]
[70]
Ray, P.; Kalita, B. Formulation and evaluation of phospholipid complex of green tea Polyphenol. Int. J. Res. Devel. Pharm. Life Sci., 2017, 6(6), 2813-2819.
[71]
Ochi, M.M.; Amoabediny, G.; Rezayat, S.M.; Akbarzadeh, A.; Ebrahimi, B. In vitro co-delivery evaluation of novel pegylated nano-liposomal herbal drugs of silibinin and glycyrrhizic acid (nano-phytosome) to hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Cell J., 2016, 18(2), 135-148.
[PMID: 27540518]
[72]
El-Gazayerly, O.N.; Makhlouf, A.I.; Soelm, A.M.; Mohmoud, M.A. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of silymarin phytosomes compared to milk thistle extract in CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in rats. J. Microencapsul., 2014, 31(1), 23-30.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/02652048.2013.805836] [PMID: 23808477]
[73]
Ripoli, M.; Angelico, R.; Sacco, P.; Ceglie, A.; Mangia, A. Phytoliposome-based silibinin delivery system as a promising strategy to prevent hepatitis C virus infection. J. Biomed. Nanotechnol., 2016, 12(4), 770-780.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1166/jbn.2016.2161] [PMID: 27301203]
[74]
Maryana, W.; Rachmawati, H.; Mudhakir, D. Formation of phytosome containing silymarin using thin layer-hydration technique aimed for oral delivery. Mater. Today Proc., 2016, 3(3), 855-866.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2016.02.019]
[75]
Maryana, W.; Rahma, A.; Mudhakir, D.; Rachmawati, H. Phy-tosome containing silymarin for oral administration: Formulation and physical evaluation. J. Biomimet. Biomater. Biomed. Eng., 2015, 25, 54-65.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/JBBBE.25.54]
[76]
Poruba, M.; Kazdová, L.; Oliyarnyk, O.; Malinská, H.; Matusková, Z.; Tozzi di Angelo, I.; Skop, V.; Vecera, R. Improvement bioavailability of silymarin ameliorates severe dyslipidemia associated with metabolic syndrome. Xenobiotica, 2015, 45(9), 751-756.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/00498254.2015.1010633] [PMID: 26068528]
[77]
Tedesco, D.; Steidler, S.; Galletti, S.; Tameni, M.; Sonzogni, O.; Ravarotto, L. Efficacy of silymarin-phospholipid complex in reducing the toxicity of aflatoxin B1 in broiler chicks. Poult. Sci., 2004, 83(11), 1839-1843.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ps/83.11.1839] [PMID: 15554059]
[78]
Angelico, R.; Ceglie, A.; Sacco, P.; Colafemmina, G.; Ripoli, M.; Mangia, A. Phyto-liposomes as nanoshuttles for water-insoluble silybin-phospholipid complex. Int. J. Pharm., 2014, 471(1-2), 173-181.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2014.05.026] [PMID: 24858381]
[79]
Ali, S.O.; Darwish, H.A.; Ismail, N.A. Modulatory effects of curcumin, silybin-phytosome and alpha-R-lipoic acid against thioacetamide-induced liver cirrhosis in rats. Chem. Biol. Interact., 2014, 216, 26-33.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbi.2014.03.009] [PMID: 24704557]
[80]
Ali, S.O.; Darwish, H.A.; Ismail, N.A. Curcumin, silybin phytosome(®) and α-R-lipoic acid mitigate chronic hepatitis in rat by inhibiting oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines production. Basic Clin. Pharmacol. Toxicol., 2016, 118(5), 369-380.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bcpt.12502] [PMID: 26457982]
[81]
Song, Y.; Zhuang, J.; Guo, J.; Xiao, Y.; Ping, Q. Preparation and properties of a silybin-phospholipid complex. Pharmazie, 2008, 63(1), 35-42.
[PMID: 18271301]
[82]
Elhaak, M.A.; Elfetoh, E.M.; Tousson, E.; Salama, A.F. Com-parison of the oral bioavailability of Egyptian silymarin extract with Chinese silymarin Phytosome® drug on liver fibro-sis model. Int. J. Adv. Pharm. Biol. Chem., 2015, 4(3), 603-611.
[83]
Federico, A.; Dallio, M.D.I.; Fabio, G.; Zarrelli, A.; Zappavigna, S.; Stiuso, P.; Tuccillo, C.; Caraglia, M.; Loguercio, C. Silybin–phosphatidylcholine complex protects human gastric and liver cells from oxidative stress. In Vivo, 2015, 29(5), 569-575.
[PMID: 26359416]
[84]
Han, W.L.; Lu, W.; He, D.P.; Long, Y.Q.; Shang, J.C. Pharmacokinetics and relative bioavailability study of berberine hydrochloride phytosome in Rabbits. Chin. Pharm., 2011, 17, 14.
[85]
Tan, Q.; Liu, S.; Chen, X.; Wu, M.; Wang, H.; Yin, H.; He, D.; Xiong, H.; Zhang, J. Design and evaluation of a novel evodiamine-phospholipid complex for improved oral bioavailability. AAPS PharmSciTech, 2012, 13(2), 534-547.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1208/s12249-012-9772-9] [PMID: 22454136]
[86]
Satyendra, P.; Arun, P.; Shailendra, P.; Neelesh, D.; Neeraj, K. Formulation and evaluation of topical cream of piperine for vitiligo. World J. Pharm. Res., 2018, 7(3), 714-724.
[87]
Djekic, L.; Krajišnik, D.; Mićic, Z.; Čalija, B. Formulation and physicochemical characterization of hydrogels with 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid/phospholipid complex phytosomes. J. Drug Deliv. Sci. Technol., 2016, 35, 81-90.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jddst.2016.06.008]
[88]
Freag, M.S.; Saleh, W.M.; Abdallah, O.Y. Self-assembled phospholipid-based phytosomal nanocarriers as promising platforms for improving oral bioavailability of the anticancer celastrol. Int. J. Pharm., 2018, 535(1-2), 18-26.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2017.10.053] [PMID: 29102699]
[89]
Pathan, R.A.; Bhandari, U. Gymnemic acid-phospholipid complex: Preparation and characterization. J. Dispers. Sci. Technol., 2011, 32(8), 1165-1172.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01932691.2010.498256]
[90]
Jain, P.K.; Khurana, N.; Pounikar, Y.; Gajbhiye, A.; Kharya, M.D. Enhancement of absorption and hepatoprotective potential through soya-phosphatidylcholine-andrographolide vesicular system. J. Liposome Res., 2013, 23(2), 110-118.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/08982104.2012.753456] [PMID: 23506220]
[91]
Vuong, P.M.; Ty, N.M.; Tung, P.C.; Thao, P.T. Synthesis and characterization of curcumin-phosphatidylcholine complex via solution enhanced dispersion by supercritical CO2. Viet. J. Chem., 2017, 55(4), 514-520.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.15625/2525-2321.2017-004501]
[92]
Tung, B.T.; Hai, N.T.; Son, P.K. Hepatoprotective effect of phytosome curcumin against paracetamol-induced liver toxicity in mice. Braz. J. Pharm. Sci., 2017, 53(1)e16136
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s2175-97902017000116136]
[93]
Zhang, J.; Tang, Q.; Xu, X.; Li, N. Development and evaluation of a novel phytosome-loaded chitosan microsphere system for curcumin delivery. Int. J. Pharm., 2013, 448(1), 168-174.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2013.03.021] [PMID: 23524117]
[94]
Xie, J.; Li, Y.; Song, L.; Pan, Z.; Ye, S.; Hou, Z. Design of a novel curcumin-soybean phosphatidylcholine complex-based targeted drug delivery systems. Drug Deliv., 2017, 24(1), 707-719.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10717544.2017.1303855] [PMID: 28436718]
[95]
Mukherjee, S.; Baidoo, J.; Fried, A.; Atwi, D.; Dolai, S.; Boockvar, J.; Symons, M.; Ruggieri, R.; Raja, K.; Banerjee, P. Curcumin changes the polarity of tumor-associated microglia and eliminates glioblastoma. Int. J. Cancer, 2016, 139(12), 2838-2849.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.30398] [PMID: 27543754]
[96]
Singh, R.P.; Gangadharappa, H.V.; Mruthunjaya, K. Phytosome complexed with chitosan for gingerol delivery in the treatment of respiratory infection: In vitro and in vivo evaluation. Eur. J. Pharm. Sci., 2018, 122, 214-229.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejps.2018.06.028] [PMID: 29966737]
[97]
Agarwal, A.; Kharb, V.; Saharan, V.A. Process optimisation; characterisation and evaluation of resveratrol-phospholipid complexes using Box-Behnken statistical design. Int. Curr. Pharm. J., 2014, 3(7), 301-308.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3329/icpj.v3i7.19079]
[98]
Kalita, B.; Das, M.K.; Sarma, M.; Deka, A. Sustained anti-inflammatory effect of Resveratrol-Phospholipid complex embedded polymeric patch. AAPS PharmSciTech, 2017, 18(3), 629-645.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1208/s12249-016-0542-y] [PMID: 27173988]
[99]
Ittadwar, P.A.; Bhojne, S.V.; Puranik, P.K. Novel salicin phy-tosomal complex: development and optimization using central composite design. World J. Pharm. Res., 2018, 7(9), 735-751.
[100]
Mazumder, A.; Dwivedi, A.; du Preez, J.L.; du Plessis, J. In vitro wound healing and cytotoxic effects of sinigrin-phytosome complex. Int. J. Pharm., 2016, 498(1-2), 283-293.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2015.12.027] [PMID: 26706438]
[101]
Mazumder, A.; Dwivedi, A.; Fox, L.T.; Brümmer, A.; du Preez, J.L.; Gerber, M.; du Plessis, J. In vitro skin permeation of sinigrin from its phytosome complex. J. Pharm. Pharmacol., 2016, 68(12), 1577-1583.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jphp.12594] [PMID: 27696397]
[102]
Ittadwar, P.A.; Puranik, P.K. Novel umbelliferone phyto-somes: Development and optimization using experimental design approach and evaluation of photo-protective and antioxidant activity. Int. J. Pharm. Pharm. Sci., 2017, 9, 218-228.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.22159/ijpps.2017v9i1.14635]
[103]
Hou, Z.; Li, Y.; Huang, Y.; Zhou, C.; Lin, J.; Wang, Y.; Cui, F.; Zhou, S.; Jia, M.; Ye, S.; Zhang, Q. Phytosomes loaded with mitomycin C-soybean phosphatidylcholine complex developed for drug delivery. Mol. Pharm., 2013, 10(1), 90-101.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/mp300489p] [PMID: 23194396]
[104]
Li, Y.; Wu, H.; Jia, M.; Cui, F.; Lin, J.; Yang, X.; Wang, Y.; Dai, L.; Hou, Z. Therapeutic effect of folate-targeted and PEGylated phytosomes loaded with a mitomycin C-soybean phosphatidyhlcholine complex. Mol. Pharm., 2014, 11(9), 3017-3026.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/mp5001873] [PMID: 25054963]
[105]
Abdelkader, H.; Longman, M.R.; Alany, R.G.; Pierscionek, B. Phytosome-hyaluronic acid systems for ocular delivery of L-carnosine. Int. J. Nanomedicine, 2016, 11, 2815-2827.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S104774] [PMID: 27366062]
[106]
Dhase, A.S.; Saboo, S.S. Preparation and evaluation of phyto-somes containing methanolic extract of leaves of aegle mar-melos (Bael). Int. J. Pharm. Tech. Res., 2015, 8(6), 231-240.
[107]
Habbu, P.; Madagundi, S.; Shastry, R.; Vanakudri, R.; Kul-karni, V. Preparation and Evaluation of Antidiabetic Activity of Allium cepa-Phospholipid Complex (Phytosome) in Strep-tozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats. RGUHS J. Pharm. Sci., 2015, 5, 132-141.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.5530/rjps.2015.4.3]
[108]
Nazeer, A.A.; Veeraiyan, S.; Vijaykumar, S.D. Anti-cancer potency and sustained release of phytosomal diallyl disulfide containing methanolic Allium sativum extract against breast cancer. Int. Res. J. Pharm., 2017, 8(8), 34-40.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.7897/2230-8407.088141]
[109]
Habbu, P.; Madagundi, S.; Kulkarni, R.; Jadav, S.; Vanakudri, R.; Kulkarni, V. Preparation and evaluation of Bacopa–phospholipid complex for antiamnesic activity in rodents. Drug Invent. Today, 2013, 5(1), 13-21.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dit.2013.02.004]
[110]
Hüsch, J.; Bohnet, J.; Fricker, G.; Skarke, C.; Artaria, C.; Appendino, G.; Schubert-Zsilavecz, M.; Abdel-Tawab, M. Enhanced absorption of boswellic acids by a lecithin delivery form (Phytosome(®)) of Boswellia extract. Fitoterapia, 2013, 84, 89-98.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fitote.2012.10.002] [PMID: 23092618]
[111]
Sahu, A.R.; Bothara, S.B. Formulation and evaluation of phytosome drug delivery system of boswellia serrata extract. Int. J. Res. Med., 2015, 4(2), 94-99.
[112]
Gahandule, M.B.; Jadhav, S.J.; Gadhave, M.V.; Gaikwad, D.D. Formulation and development of hepato-protective butea monosperma-Phytosome. Int. J. Res. Pharm. Pharm. Sci., 2016, 1(4), 21-27.
[113]
Demir, B.; Barlas, F.B.; Guler, E.; Gumus, P.Z.; Can, M.; Yavuz, M.; Coskunol, H.; Timur, S. Gold nanoparticle loaded phytosomal systems: Synthesis; characterization and in vitro investigations. RSC Advances, 2014, 4(65), 34687-34695.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/C4RA05108D]
[114]
Jazmi, A.F.; Alfiantya, P.F.; Nurarifah, S.A.; Purmitasari, E.A.; Vitania, L.A.; Riawan, W. Spade leaf extract phytosome modulates krox-20; neuregulinـ1; phospholipids; and cognitive function of traumatic brain injury model in rats. Indonesian J. Cancer Chemoprevent., 2015, 6(3), 105-110.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.14499/indonesianjcanchemoprev6iss3pp105-110]
[115]
Zhu, H.; Wang, D.W.; Gao, E. Study on Preparation and Physicochemical Characterics of Ginkgo Flavone Phytosomes. Acta Acad. Med. Weif., 2007, 5, 22. [J]
[116]
Loggia, R.D.; Sosa, S.; Tubaro, A.; Morazzoni, P.; Bombardelli, E.; Griffini, A. Anti-inflammatory activity of some Ginkgo bi-loba constituents and of their phospholipid-complexes. Fitoterapia, 1996, 67(3), 257-264.
[117]
Naik, S.R.; Panda, V.S. Hepatoprotective effect of Ginkgoselect Phytosome in rifampicin induced liver injury in rats: Evidence of antioxidant activity. Fitoterapia, 2008, 79(6), 439-445.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fitote.2008.02.013] [PMID: 18534776]
[118]
Naik, S.R.; Pilgaonkar, V.W.; Panda, V.S. Neuropharmacological evaluation of Ginkgo biloba phytosomes in rodents. Phytother. Res., 2006, 20(10), 901-905.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.1973] [PMID: 16909444]
[119]
Naik, S.R.; Pilgaonkar, V.W.; Panda, V.S. Evaluation of antioxidant activity of Ginkgo biloba phytosomes in rat brain. Phytother. Res., 2006, 20(11), 1013-1016.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.1976] [PMID: 16909446]
[120]
El-Menshawe, S.F.; Ali, A.A.; Rabeh, M.A.; Khalil, N.M. Nanosized soy phytosome-based thermogel as topical anti-obesity formulation: An approach for acceptable level of evidence of an effective novel herbal weight loss product. Int. J. Nanomedicine, 2018, 13, 307-318.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S153429] [PMID: 29391791]
[121]
Singh, R.P.; Narke, R. Preparation and evaluation of phytosome of lawsone. Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Res., 2015, 6(12), 5217-5226.
[122]
Vilamarim, R.; Bernardo, J.; Videira, R.A.; Valentão, P.; Veiga, F.; Andrade, P.B. An egg yolk’s phospholipid-pennyroyal nootropic nanoformulation modulates monoam-ino oxidase-A (MAO-A) activity in SH-SY5Y neuronal mod-el. J. Funct. Foods, 2018, 46, 335-344.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jff.2018.05.009]
[123]
Kamboj, A. Phytochemical characterization and antidiabetic potential of standardized total methanolic extract and phytosomes of Momordica dioica roxb. ex Willd. fruit. Int. J. Green Pharm., 2017, 11(1), S157-S165.
[124]
Arora, S.; Kaur, P. Preparation and characterization of phyto-somal-phospholipid complex of P. amarus and its tablet formulation. J. Pharm. Technol. Res. Manag., 2013, 1, 1-18.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.15415/jptrm.2013.11001]
[125]
Pereira, A.; Mallya, R. Formulation and evaluation of a photoprotectant cream containing Phyllanthus emblica extract-phospholipid complex. J. Pharmacog. Phytochem., 2015, 4(2), 232-240.
[126]
Nagpal, N.; Arora, M.; Swami, G. Rageeb; Kapoor, R. Designing of a phytosome dosage form with Tecomella undulata as a novel drug delivery for better utilization. Pak. J. Pharm. Sci., 2016, 29(4), 1231-1235.
[PMID: 27393436]
[127]
Rajashekar, K.; Sundari, P.P.; Srinivas, P. Development of a topical phytosomal gel of Woodfordia fruticosa. World J. Pharm. Pharm. Sci., 2015, 4(11), 919-932.
[128]
Rathee, S.; Kamboj, A. Optimization and development of antidiabetic phytosomes by the Box-Behnken design. J. Liposome Res., 2018, 28(2), 161-172.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08982104.2017.1311913] [PMID: 28337938]
[129]
Pellegrini, L.; Milano, E.; Franceschi, F.; Belcaro, G.; Gizzi, G.; Feragalli, B.; Dugall, M.; Luzzi, R.; Togni, S.; Eggenhoffner, R.; Giacomelli, L. Managing ulcerative colitis in remission phase: usefulness of Casperome®, an innovative lecithin-based delivery system of Boswellia serrata extract. Eur. Rev. Med. Pharmacol. Sci., 2016, 20(12), 2695-2700.
[PMID: 27383325]
[130]
Togni, S.; Maramaldi, G.; Di Pierro, F.; Biondi, M. A cosmeceutical formulation based on boswellic acids for the treatment of erythematous eczema and psoriasis. Clin. Cosmet. Investig. Dermatol., 2014, 7, 321-327.
[PMID: 25419153]
[131]
Belcaro, G.; Gizzi, G.; Pellegrini, L.; Corsi, M.; Dugall, M.; Cacchio, M.; Feragalli, B.; Togni, S.; Riva, A.; Eggenhoffner, R.; Giacomelli, L. Supplementation with a lecithin-based delivery form of Boswellia serrata extract (Casperome®) controls symptoms of mild irritable bowel syndrome. Eur. Rev. Med. Pharmacol. Sci., 2017, 21(9), 2249-2254.
[PMID: 28537656]
[132]
Di Pierro, F.; Menghi, A.B.; Barreca, A.; Lucarelli, M.; Calandrelli, A. Greenselect Phytosome as an adjunct to a low-calorie diet for treatment of obesity: A clinical trial. Altern. Med. Rev., 2009, 14(2), 154-160.
[PMID: 19594224]
[133]
Belcaro, G.; Ledda, A.; Hu, S.; Cesarone, M.R.; Feragalli, B.; Dugall, M. Greenselect phytosome for borderline metabolic syndrome Evid; Based Compl. Altern. Med, 2013.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/869061]
[134]
Gilardini, L.; Pasqualinotto, L.; Di Pierro, F.; Risso, P.; Invitti, C. Effects of Greenselect Phytosome® on weight maintenance after weight loss in obese women: a randomized placebo-controlled study. BMC Complement. Altern. Med., 2016, 16(1), 233.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12906-016-1214-x] [PMID: 27450231]
[135]
Belcaro, G.; Dugall, M.; Luzzi, R.; Ledda, A.; Pellegrini, L.; Cesarone, M.R.; Hosoi, M.; Errichi, M. Meriva®+Glucosamine versus Condroitin+Glucosamine in patients with knee osteoarthritis: An observational study. Eur. Rev. Med. Pharmacol. Sci., 2014, 18(24), 3959-3963.
[PMID: 25555891]
[136]
Belcaro, G.; Cesarone, M.R.; Dugall, M.; Pellegrini, L.; Ledda, A.; Grossi, M.G.; Togni, S.; Appendino, G. Efficacy and safety of Meriva®, a curcumin-phosphatidylcholine complex, during extended administration in osteoarthritis patients. Altern. Med. Rev., 2010, 15(4), 337-344.
[PMID: 21194249]
[137]
Belcaro, G.; Cesarone, M.R.; Dugall, M.; Pellegrini, L.; Ledda, A.; Grossi, M.G.; Togni, S.; Appendino, G. Product-evaluation registry of Meriva®, a curcumin-phosphatidylcholine complex, for the complementary management of osteoarthritis. Panminerva Med., 2010, 52(2)(Suppl. 1), 55-62.
[PMID: 20657536]
[138]
Riva, A.; Franceschi, F.; Togni, S.; Eggenhoffner, R.; Giaco-melli, L. Health benefits of curcumin and curcumin phyto-some in bone density disorders. JSM Bone Marrow Res., 2017, 1(2), 1006-1009.
[139]
Farinacci, M.; Gaspardo, B.; Colitti, M.; Stefanon, B. Dietary administration of curcumin modifies transcriptional profile of genes involved in inflammatory cascade in horse leukocytes. Ital. J. Anim. Sci., 2009, 8(2), 84-86.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4081/ijas.2009.s2.84]
[140]
Di Pierro, F.; Rapacioli, G.; Di Maio, E.A.; Appendino, G.; Franceschi, F.; Togni, S. Comparative evaluation of the pain relieving properties of a lecithinized formulation of curcumin (Meriva(®)), nimesulide, and acetaminophen. J. Pain Res., 2013, 6, 201-205.
[PMID: 23526055]
[141]
Drobnic, F.; Riera, J.; Appendino, G.; Togni, S.; Franceschi, F.; Valle, X.; Pons, A.; Tur, J. Reduction of delayed onset muscle soreness by a novel curcumin delivery system (Meriva®): a randomised, placebo-controlled trial. J. Int. Soc. Sports Nutr., 2014, 11(1), 31.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1550-2783-11-31] [PMID: 24982601]
[142]
Di Pierro, F.; Zacconi, P.; Bertuccioli, A.; Togni, S.; Eggenhoffner, R.; Giacomelli, L.; Scaltrini, S. A naturally-inspired, curcumin-based lecithin formulation (Meriva® formulated as the finished product Algocur®) alleviates the osteo-muscular pain conditions in rugby players. Eur. Rev. Med. Pharmacol. Sci., 2017, 21(21), 4935-4940.
[PMID: 29164565]
[143]
Panahi, Y.; Saadat, A.; Beiraghdar, F.; Nouzari, S.M.; Jalalian, H.R.; Sahebkar, A. Antioxidant effects of bioavailability enhanced curcuminoids in patients with solid tumors: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. J. Funct. Foods, 2014, 6, 615-622.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jff.2013.12.008]
[144]
Pastorelli, D.; Fabricio, A.S.C.; Giovanis, P.; D’Ippolito, S.; Fiduccia, P.; Soldà, C.; Buda, A.; Sperti, C.; Bardini, R.; Da Dalt, G.; Rainato, G.; Gion, M.; Ursini, F. Phytosome complex of curcumin as complementary therapy of advanced pancreatic cancer improves safety and efficacy of gemcitabine: Results of a prospective phase II trial. Pharmacol. Res., 2018, 132, 72-79.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phrs.2018.03.013] [PMID: 29614381]
[145]
Mazzolani, F.; Togni, S.; Giacomelli, L.; Eggenhoffner, R.; Franceschi, F. Oral administration of a curcumin-phospholipid formulation (Meriva®) for treatment of chronic diabetic macular edema: A pilot study. Eur. Rev. Med. Pharmacol. Sci., 2018, 22(11), 3617-3625.
[PMID: 29917217]
[146]
Appendino, G.; Belcaro, G.; Cornelli, U.; Luzzi, R.; Togni, S.; Dugall, M.; Cesarone, M.R.; Feragalli, B.; Ippolito, E.; Errichi, B.M.; Pellegrini, L.; Ledda, A.; Ricci, A.; Bavera, P.; Hosoi, M.; Stuard, S.; Corsi, M.; Errichi, S.; Gizzi, G. Potential role of curcumin phytosome (Meriva) in controlling the evolution of diabetic microangiopathy. A pilot study. Panminerva Med., 2011, 53(3)(Suppl. 1), 43-49.
[PMID: 22108476]
[147]
van Campen, C.L.; Riepma, K.; Visser, F.C. The effect of curcumin on patients with chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis: An open label study. Int. J. Clin. Med., 2018, 9(5), 356-366.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/ijcm.2018.95031]
[148]
Pajardi, G.; Bortot, P.; Ponti, V.; Novelli, C. Clinical usefulness of oral supplementation with alpha-lipoic acid; curcumin phytosome; and B-group vitamins in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome undergoing surgical treatment Evid; Based Compl. Altern. Med, 2014.
[149]
Di Pierro, F.; Bressan, A.; Ranaldi, D.; Rapacioli, G.; Giacomelli, L.; Bertuccioli, A. Potential role of bioavailable curcumin in weight loss and omental adipose tissue decrease: preliminary data of a randomized, controlled trial in overweight people with metabolic syndrome. Preliminary study. Eur. Rev. Med. Pharmacol. Sci., 2015, 19(21), 4195-4202.
[PMID: 26592847]
[150]
Lazzeroni, M.; Guerrieri-Gonzaga, A.; Gandini, S.; Johansson, H.; Serrano, D.; Cazzaniga, M.; Aristarco, V.; Macis, D.; Mo-ra, S.; Caldarella, P.; Pagani, G. A presurgical study of lecithin formulation of green tea extract in women with early breast cancer. Cancer Prev. Res., 2017.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-16-0298]
[151]
Pietta, P.; Simonetti, P.; Gardana, C.; Brusamolino, A.; Morazzoni, P.; Bombardelli, E. Relationship between rate and extent of catechin absorption and plasma antioxidant status. Biochem. Mol. Biol. Int., 1998, 46(5), 895-903.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15216549800204442] [PMID: 9861443]
[152]
D’alessandro, A.; Caroli, A.; D’alessandro, A.; Mandolesi, D.; Venosi, S.; Orsini, A.; Riva, A.; Morazzoni, P.; Balbo, A.; Mandolesi, S. Use of Ginkgo biloba phytosome in chronic venous disease: a pilot study. Acta Phlebol., 2015, 16, 83-92.
[153]
Riva, A.; Vitale, J.A.; Belcaro, G.; Hu, S.; Feragalli, B.; Vinciguerra, G.; Cacchio, M.; Bonanni, E.; Giacomelli, L.; Eggenhöffner, R.; Togni, S. Quercetin phytosome® in triathlon athletes: A pilot registry study. Minerva Med., 2018, 109(4), 285-289.
[PMID: 29947492]
[154]
Maramaldi, G.; Togni, S.; Pagin, I.; Giacomelli, L.; Cattaneo, R.; Eggenhöffner, R.; Burastero, S.E. Soothing and anti-itch effect of quercetin phytosome in human subjects: A single-blind study. Clin. Cosmet. Investig. Dermatol., 2016, 9, 55-62.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CCID.S98890] [PMID: 27013898]
[155]
Togni, S.; Maramaldi, G.; Pagin, I.; Cattaneo, R.; Eg-genhoffner, R.; Giacomelli, L. Quercetin-phytosome 2% cream: Evaluation of the potential photoirritant and sensitizing effects. Dermatol. Exp., 2016, 18(2), 85-87.
[156]
Flaig, T.W.; Gustafson, D.L.; Su, L.J.; Zirrolli, J.A.; Crighton, F.; Harrison, G.S.; Pierson, A.S.; Agarwal, R.; Glodé, L.M. A phase I and pharmacokinetic study of silybin-phytosome in prostate cancer patients. Invest. New Drugs, 2007, 25(2), 139-146.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10637-006-9019-2] [PMID: 17077998]
[157]
Flaig, T.W.; Glodé, M.; Gustafson, D.; van Bokhoven, A.; Tao, Y.; Wilson, S.; Su, L.J.; Li, Y.; Harrison, G.; Agarwal, R.; Crawford, E.D.; Lucia, M.S.; Pollak, M. A study of high-dose oral silybin-phytosome followed by prostatectomy in patients with localized prostate cancer. Prostate, 2010, 70(8), 848-855.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pros.21118] [PMID: 20127732]
[158]
Loguercio, C.; Andreone, P.; Brisc, C.; Brisc, M.C.; Bugianesi, E.; Chiaramonte, M.; Cursaro, C.; Danila, M.; de Sio, I.; Floreani, A.; Freni, M.A.; Grieco, A.; Groppo, M.; Lazzari, R.; Lobello, S.; Lorefice, E.; Margotti, M.; Miele, L.; Milani, S.; Okolicsanyi, L.; Palasciano, G.; Portincasa, P.; Saltarelli, P.; Smedile, A.; Somalvico, F.; Spadaro, A.; Sporea, I.; Sorrentino, P.; Vecchione, R.; Tuccillo, C.; Del Vecchio Blanco, C.; Federico, A. Silybin combined with phosphatidylcholine and vitamin E in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: A randomized controlled trial. Free Radic. Biol. Med., 2012, 52(9), 1658-1665.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2012.02.008] [PMID: 22343419]
[159]
Nuttall, S.L.; Kendall, M.J.; Bombardelli, E.; Morazzoni, P. An evaluation of the antioxidant activity of a standardized grape seed extract. Leucoselect. J. Clin. Pharm. Ther., 1998, 23(5), 385-389.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2710.1998.00180.x] [PMID: 9875688]
[160]
Wenxin, Z.; Jianxin, W.; Limei, H.; Dongyan, G. Salvianic phenol acid or salt phospholipid compound and preparing method thereof. Chinese Patent CN101199508A,, 2007.
[161]
Hongwei, H.; Wen, S.; Jianxin, W.; Jing, Q.; Limei, H. Phospholipid complex of gentian total glucosides and preparation method thereof. Chinese Patent CN102085376A, 2009.
[162]
Jianxin, W.; Limei, H.; Wen, S.; Jing, Q.; Hongwei, H. Phospholipid complex of gentian total glucosides and preparation method thereof. Chinese Patent CN102085376, 2011.
[163]
Yi, J.; Chengrun, W.; Chunyan, Z. Baicalein phospholipid complex and preparation method thereof Chinese Patent CN101704838, 2010.
[164]
Chunyan, Z.; Chengrun, W.; Yi, J. Baicalein phospholipid complex and preparation method thereof. Chinese Patent CN101704838A, 2009.
[165]
Huixia, L.; Yan, C.; Zhenhai, Z.; Jianping, Z. Solid dispersion body of berberine-phospholipid complex and preparation method thereof. CN102793673, 2012.
[166]
Jianguo, X.; Chenghui, H.; Guihua, L.; Yan, O.; Xuanlin, L.; Ning, Y.; Awti, G.; Hemiti, P. Saussurea involucrate extractive phytosome; oral cavity disintegrating tablet and preparation methods of two. Chinese Patent CN104383547, 2015.
[167]
Jianguo, X.; Chenghui, H.; Guihua, L.; Liu, O.; Yu, X.; Gu, N.; Stan, L.; Ti, A.; Hemimit, P. Saussurea involucrate extractive phytosome oral cavity disintegrating tablet and preparation methods of two. Chinese Patent CN104383547A, 2014.
[168]
Hongxia, L.; Mengyu, H.; Shuchang, D.; Wei, H.; Taiyu, W.; Xiying, T.; Lei, L. Preparation method of curcumin and phospholipid complex. Chinese Patent CN107213467A, 2017.
[169]
Hongxia, L.; Mengyu, H.; Shuchang, D.; Shanshan, H.; Taihao, W.; Xiying, T.; Lei, L. Preparation method of curcumin and phospholipid complex. Chinese Patent CN107213467, 2017.
[170]
Hongwu, W.; Liang, G.; Jingyan, M.; Yuhong, B.; Yuxing, W.; Jinhui, Y. Hirudin phospholipid complex and preparation method and application thereof. Chinese Patent CN103908678, 2014.
[171]
Siwang, W.; Ya, Z.; Hua, L.; Xuanxuan, Z.; Qian, Y.; Linlin, B. Amarogentin-phospholipid complex and preparation method thereof. Chinese Patent CN106511275, 2017.
[172]
Yingjun, M.; Yingjie, D.; Li, A.; Haotian, L. Ginsenoside Rg 3 and phospholipid complex and preparing method thereof. Chinese Patent CN101530389, 2009.
[173]
Zhirong, Z.; Tao, G.; Qiang, P. Salviol acid B phosphatide complexes and method of preparing the same. Chinese Patent CN101254184, 2008.
[174]
Xiaoling, H.; Xiang, L.; Dongkai, W. Aqueous dispersion of camptothecin analogue-phospholipid complex and method for preparing same. Chinese Patent CN101721364, 2010.
[175]
Fude, C.; Ye, T. Hydroxycamptothecin-phospholipid complex as well as prep-aration method and use thereof Chinese Patent CN101474184, 2009.
[176]
Chaodou, X.; Tiejun, L.; Xiaojun, G.; Guojun, J.; Mingzhu, L.; Hao, Z. Proanthocyanidin B2 phospholipid compound; and preparation method and application thereof. Chinese Patent CN102688501A, 2012.
[177]
Renping, R.; Yu, S.; Zhaobin, C.; Jianfeng, B. Glycyrrhizic acid self-emulsifying preparation concentrated solution using phospholipid complex as intermediate and preparation method thereof. Chinese Patent CN103690482A, 2013.
[178]
Liu, Y.; Zhou, C.; Song, Z.; Li, L.; Wang, H.; Xia, X.; Wang, R.; Dong, W.; Jin, D. Insulin-lipid complex; preparation method therefor; and preparation thereof. European Patent EP2594281A1, 2010.
[179]
Duan, M.; Zhou, H.; Yan, Z. Nanoemulsion of resveratrolphospholipid complex and method for preparing the same and applications thereof. U.S. Patent US20100297199A1, 2009.
[180]
Duan, M.; Zhou, H.; Yan, Z. Nanoemulsion of resveratrolphospholipid complex and method for preparing the same and applications thereof U. S. Patent US20100297199, 2010.
[181]
Huafeng, Z.; Xing, D.; Zhiwei, X.; Zemin, Y.; Tingqiang, L.; Chunhua, S. A method for producing microemulsion particles from resveratrol-phospholipid complex. Chinese Patent CN104382888B, 2014.
[182]
Zhang, W.; Xiaomin, H.; Weiliang, S. Tea extract-phytosomes composite and preparation method thereof Chinese Patent CN101554192A, 2008.
[183]
Xiaoxin, C.; Chaofeng, L.; Said, X.; Wuxiong, S.; Xiaoying, L.; Xiaoli, Z. Self-microemulsion composition of breviscapine phytosome and preparation method of composition. Chinese Patent CN103110578B, 2013.
[184]
Bombardelli, E.; Morazzoni, P. Phospholipid complexes of proanthocyanidin A2 as anti-atherosclerotic agents. U. S. Patent US6429202B1, 2002.
[185]
Moratstsoni, P.; Moraczoni, P.; Bombardelli, E.; Bombardelli, E. Application of phospholipid complex extracts from Vitis vinifera as antiatherosclerotic agents. Russian Patent RU02207866, 2003.
[186]
Giori, A.; Franceschi, F. Phospholipid complexes of olive fruits or leaves extracts having improved bioavailability. U. S. Patent US20100068316A1, 2006.
[187]
Toni, S. Compositions for the treatment of gynaecological disorders. Korean Patent KR20130072211A, 2010.
[188]
Yong, Z.; Xiaojuan, Z.; Chengyuan, L.; Suqin, W.; Xiaoyue, W. Silybin-phospholipid complex and preparation method there-of. Chinese Patent CN103751798, 2014.
[189]
Yong, Z.; Xiaojuan, Z.; Chengyuan, L.; Suqin, W.; Xiaoyue, W. Phospholipid complex of silybum marianum extract and preparation method for phospholipid complex. Chinese Patent CN103751799, 2014.
[190]
Wu, N.; Yan, X.; Sun, H.; Yan, K.; Zhu, Y.; Zhang, S.; Bai, X.; He, Y.; Ma, X.; Li, T. Pharmaceutical composition containing silybin. U. S. Patent US20180042893, 2018.
[191]
Pengwang, L.; Jiang, W.; Meixiang, Z.; Caixia, Z.; Xinhui, S. Phospholipid complex of silybin dihemisuccinate disodium and preparation method and application thereof. Chinese Pa-tent CN101926791, 2010.
[192]
Jiang, W.; Pengwang, L.; Meixiang, Z.; Xinhui, S.; Caixia, Z. Phospholipid complex of silybin dihemisuccinate disodium and preparation method and application thereof. Chinese Pa-tent CN101926792, 2010.
[193]
Miehlich, K.; Giesen, M.; Bartmann, W.; Schmitz, D.; Arians, D. Oral and dental care and cleaning with Ginkgo Biloba to Zahn-fleischvitalisierung. Danish Patent DE102014222915A1, 2014.
[194]
Di, P.F. Compositions containing a phospholipid-curcumin complex and piperine as chemosensitizing agent. European Patent EP2228062A1, 2009.
[195]
Di, P.F. Compositions containing a phospholipid-curcumin complex and piperine as chemosensitizing agent. European Patent EP2228062, 2010.
[196]
Qin, P.; Zhifei, L.; Lin, S.; Haiyan, N. Complex of total flavone phospholipid of blackberry lily and preparation method. Chinese Patent CN1795866, 2006.
[197]
Masse, J.P.; Taillade, C.; Lucas, C. Bioavailable complexes of alpha-linolenic acid; plant extracts containing them and pharmaceutical compositions incorporating them. French Patent FR2649322, 1991.
[198]
Xiaorong, Y.; Sheng, Y.; Yajun, S.; Pinjiang, W.; Runchun, X.; Yanjun, L.; Dabin, W. Radix scutellariae extractive phospholipid complex; and preparation method and purpose thereof. Chinese Patent CN102266567, 2011.
[199]
Zhang, B.; Schmidt, M.A.; Houston, M.; Rountree, R. Composition for treatment of dyslipidemia and inflammation. U. S. Patent US20170014374, 2017.
[200]
Yuling, L.; Jinglai, Q.; Chunqing, W.; Yuqing, W.; Xiaolian, Z.; Jiayu, L.; Xue, G. Phospholipid complex and its preparation method and formulations of Scutellaria natural active ingredients. Chinese Patent CN102988484B, 2006.
[201]
Kim, Y.K.; Kwon, H.W.; Kim, W.; Lee, E.H.; Kim, E.M.; Nam, C.S.; Kim, J.Y.; Lee, K.S. Producing method of a turmeric extract phospholipid complex having improved solubility. Korean Patent KR1020120010760, 2012.
[202]
Bing, X. Medicinal phytosome preparation containing bile salts. Chinese Patent CN102727898A, 2011.
[203]
Dunqing, W. Semen aesculi extract and phospholipid complex and preparation method thereof. Chinese Patent CN105982926, 2016.
[204]
Pifferi, G.; Anzaghi, P.; Stefli, R. Semen aesculi extract and phospholipid complex and prepara-tion method thereof. Chinese Patent CN105982926, 2002.
[205]
Giorgio, P.; Pirgiorgio, A.; Rosanna, S. Resveratrol-phospholipids complexes; their preparation; and pharmaceutical and cosmetic composition containing same. U. S. Patent US20040116386, 2004.
[206]
Jinling, M. Oleanolic acid phospholipid compound and its preparing method. Chinese Patent CN1709283A, 2005.
[207]
Dongyun, S.; Shanlin, L.; Feizhou, X. Preparation method and application of phospholipid complex with anti-oxidative stress. Chinese Patent CN103120798A, 2013.
[208]
Harada, T.; Kashihara, K.; Nio, N. Oleosin/phospholipid complex and process for producing the same world patent WO2002026788, 2002.
[209]
Giori, A.; Francesco, F.; Dzhiori, A.; Francheski, F. Phospholipid curcumine complexes exhibiting improved bio-availability. Russian Patent RU0002450818, 2012.


Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as

Article Details

VOLUME: 16
ISSUE: 6
Year: 2020
Published on: 02 October, 2020
Page: [853 - 886]
Pages: 34
DOI: 10.2174/1573407215666190417121237
Price: $65

Article Metrics

PDF: 14
HTML: 2