Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes Mellitus in Neonatal Rats: An Insight into its Applications to Induce Diabetic Complications

Author(s): Mirza Anwar Baig, Shital Sharad Panchal*

Journal Name: Current Diabetes Reviews

Volume 16 , Issue 1 , 2020

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Abstract:

Background: Diabetic complications are the major contributor in the mortality of diabetic patients despite controlling blood glucose level. In the journey of new drug discovery, animal models have to play a major role. A large number of chemical-induced and genetically modified animal models have been investigated to induce diabetic complications but none of them was found to be mimicking the pathophysiology of the human. Therefore, the search and identification of the appropriate animal model become essential.

Objective: In the present review, we have made an attempt to understand the pathophysiology of diabetic complication in the neonatal streptozotocin-diabetic rat model and tried to identify the targets for therapeutic agents. The review will help the researchers to explore the animal model to induce diabetic complications, to identify targets and further to find lead molecules for treatment or prevention of diabetic complications.

Methods: We have compiled the available research work from 1974 by using prominent databases, organized the available information and analyzed the data to improve the understanding of the pathophysiology of streptozotocin-induced diabetic complications in neonates of rats.

Results: The neonatal streptozotocin-diabetic rat model is frequently used and well-established animal model for type 2 diabetes mellitus. We have found that this model has been used to study the pathogenesis of various micro and macrovascular diabetic complications and also investigated for its effects on the liver, thymus gland, and brain. The underlying pathophysiology for complications had a resemblance to the human.

Conclusion: The neonatal streptozotocin-diabetic rat model may demonstrate symptomatic diabetic complications due to persistent hyperglycemia at the age of approximately 18-24 weeks. Critical interpretations of available research work showed that the researcher can explore split dose STZ (90- 100mg/kg b.w) model to induce Type 2 DM in neonates of rats at 2nd or 3rd postnatal day.

Keywords: Streptozotocin, neonatal rats, diabetic complications, animal model, pathophysiology, insulin.

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VOLUME: 16
ISSUE: 1
Year: 2020
Page: [26 - 39]
Pages: 14
DOI: 10.2174/1573399815666190411115829
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